PRINCIPLES OF EMERGENCY CARE
PLAN OF ACTION. Emergency plans should be established based on anticipated needs and available resources.
GATHERING OF NEEDED MATERIALS.
- The emergency response begins with the preparation of equipment and personnel before any emergency occur.
· Ask for help
· Do not do further harm
INSTRUCTION TO HELPER/S.
- Proper information and instruction to helper/helpers would provide organized first aid care.
EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES:
1. SURVEY THE SCENE. Once you recognized that an emergency has occurred and decide to act, you must make sure that the scene of the emergency is safe for you, the victim/victims, and the bystander/bystanders.
Take time to survey the scene and answer these questions:
· Is the scene safe?
· What happened?
· How many people are injured?
· Are there bystanders who can help?
Then, identify yourself as a trained first aider. Get consent to give care.
2. ACTIVATE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE. In some emergencies, you will have enough time to call for specific medical advice before administering first aid. But in some situations, you will need to attend to the victim first.
· CALL FIRST and CPR FIRST. Both trained and untrained bystanders should be instructed to Activate Medical Assistance as soon as they have determined that an adult victim requires emergency care, “CALL FIRST”. While for infant and children a “CPR FIRST” approach is recommended.
· Information to be remembered in Activating Medical Assistance:
-Number of persons injured.
-Extent of injury and first aid given.
-The telephone number from where you are calling.
3.INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM. In every emergency situation, you must first find out if there are conditions that are immediate threat to the victim’s life.
· Check for CONSCIOUSNESS.
-ADULT: Tap shoulder
-INFANT: Tickle the foot
· Check for BREATHING.
Ways of opening the airway:
a. Head tilt- Chin lift Maneuver
b. Jaw- Thrust Maneuver
-CHECK FOR AIRWAY- Look, Listen, Feel
-CHECK FOR CIRCULATION- Carotid (Adult, Child), Brachial (Infant)
4. SECONDARY ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM. It is a systematic method of gathering additional information about the injuries or condition that may need care.
· Interview the victim
S-signs and symptoms
P-past medical history
L-last meal taken
E-events prior to injury
· Check vital signs every 15 minutes if stable and every 5 minutes if unstable.
· Perform head-to-toe examination
5. REFER PATIENT FOR FURTHER EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT (if necessary, depending on the patient’s condition)