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Updated on February 8, 2012

The title is leadership and not manager-ship.  When we deal with Project Management, it is mostly managing and not leading. If so, why leadership is being introduced here.  Let us first of all state dictionary meanings of a manager and a leader:

Manager: 'A person controlling or administering a business.'

Leader: 'A person who causes others to go with him, by guiding and showing the way; guides by persuasion and argument.'

Manager as a leader

As a manager had to deal with many workers and he just cannot keep an eye over each of them. He, therefore, tries to become a leader and motivate his juniors towards a common goal. According to John Sculley, leadership revolves around visions, ideas, direction and has more to do with inspiring people as to direction and goals than with day to day implementation.

To sum up: a manager basically directs resources to complete predetermined goals or projects while a leader within a company develops individuals and motivates them to do the same tasks. A manager is more of a leader than a manager.


Stock holders versus Stakeholders

A manager cannot work in isolation. He has to deal with outsiders. One day, he may hear people protesting outside the factory for fear of pollution: noise, smoke and waste water. Another day, he may turn-on the TV and a documentary about his company accusing for over-invoicing or import of an old and obsolete plant. All these outsiders have some interest in the project and are termed as “stake-holders” as opposed to “stockholders” who have actually invested in the factory.

Who are stockholders?

The stockholder is provider of capital, the owner, and the profiteer of a corporation. Their role is that of financial investor, in that they lend their current capital with expectations of the return of greater capital in the future.

Who are stakeholders?

The stakeholder is anyone who has a vested interest in the performance of the company. This includes everyone involved in the successful running of the corporation, such as employees, customers, and the community and suppliers.

When dealing with outsider, a person would be more successful as a leader than as a manager. A manager commands but a leader persuades. By stepping into leaders’ shoes, one can convince outsiders that the company had already taken precautions to reduce the noise to bare minimum level, smoke and waste water would be treated before the release into sewer system. As to TV reporting, one can come up with the valid documents relating to price and state of machinery removing all doubts.

Five different styles
Five different styles


How a particular manager handle a specific situation depends on his or her style of management. Management Books contain five different styles:

  1. Country Club Style
  2. Improvished Style
  3. Team Style
  4. Produce or Perish Style
  5. Middle of the Road Style

However, these can be reduced into two extremes. Autocratic and Permissive. An autocratic makes all decisions without consulting others. On the other hand, in the permissive style, subordinates are encouraged to take part in decision making and also are given autonomy in carrying out the jobs.

An autocratic manager does not tolerate any short-coming, believes in rules and logics, stresses for uniformity and seeks directions from seniors in hierarchy. On the other hand, a permissive manager is job oriented, stresses work not rules, gives freedom for performing work and calls for accountability if performance is not up to mark.


It must be pointed that autocracy and permissiveness are two extremes. A manager should play his or her role in between these two extremes depending upon a particular situation. Here are four situations:

  • When employees are not in position to do the job or are deliberately avoiding the job responsibility, the must be told to do the in a particular way, in a given time frame else action be taken against them. This is termed as “TELLING”.
  • When employees are willing and have necessary know-how, the work may be delegated to them. This is termed as “DELEGATING”.
  • A situation may arise when employees have the necessary skill but need some support. This is known as “PARTICIPATING”.
  • Another style, “SELLING” works best when employees do not know how to do it but are willing to perform.

Nawab of Kalabagh know for his MBWA Style
Nawab of Kalabagh know for his MBWA Style



  • Normally, a manager sits in private office and no one can barge in without a node from his or her personal staff.
  • But it is better to have “Face to Face” interaction with employees by going to them while they are working. In this way, a manager would stay in touch and building cooperative relationships with the juniors.


  • Also called promoters, developers, original financiers and entrepreneurs.


Identification of those on whom the project depends for success.

  • Whose cooperation will we need?
  • Whose agreement and approval will be need?
  • Whose opposition would keep us from accomplishing the project?


  • An employee who takes direct responsibility for turning an idea into a profitable finished product through assertive risk-taking and innovation.
  • When an idea flops, an entrepreneurs loses his capital while an intrapreneur loses his job.


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    • profile image

      shaista tabassum 6 years ago

      very informative n thnx a lot for thz article

    • asadayub profile image

      asadayub 6 years ago

      Respected Sir, a very informative hub. Giving light from all four corners of the square. Thank You so much.

    • profile image

      kamran 6 years ago

      sir, very good explanation. project manager must be an all rounder. anyway great hub . thnx

    • profile image

      Muhammad Shoaib Ikram 6 years ago

      You provided knowledgeable information. Sometimes it really gets difficult to adopt a particular management style when project manager faces difficulties in developing a fit with labor. I think this is the scenario in construction industry in Karachi where we have labor from different sects and casts like Pathan, Reaste, Sindhi, Balochi, Seraeki and many more.

    • projectmanageresp profile image

      projectmanageresp 7 years ago

      Very good article...For me, a project manager should be a good leader to the team, so they can attain its common goal...and that is to have a successful outcome to their project.

    • mcjohan25 profile image

      mcjohan25 7 years ago

      Your really is a good writer...Your hub are all helpful...Very informative...Thanks

    • Syed Mairaj Ahmad profile image

      Syed Mairaj Ahmad 8 years ago

      This article clarifies some of my confusion regarding the difference between manager and leader…

      Well explained and the way you uses the video clips in your hub pages always enhances my interest of reading .


      Syed Mairaj Ahmad

    • profile image

      maria arif 8 years ago

      sir thank you for a very clear differentiation

    • Rufi Shahzada profile image

      Rufi Shahzada 8 years ago from Karachi

      Dear Sir,

      Thank you so very much for such a nice hub on LEADERSHIP, especially the management styles are explained so well.

      Thanks Again!


    • hafeezrm profile image

      hafeezrm 8 years ago from Pakistan

      Thanks for your comments, Mr. Emran Ali

    • Emran Ali profile image

      Emran Ali 8 years ago from karachi

      Dear Hafeez

      Thanks for sharing such an informative topic . Your each topic gives an opportunity of learning and gaining knowledge which is utterly exclusive for everyone .

      Truly yours

      Imran ali