What are Pedagogical Approaches?
Pedagogical approaches are approaches used by educators to facilitate students' learning. Teachers research, document, and reflect so they may come up with pedagogy. With this, it is important that the teachers understand the learners. They should know the students' prior knowledge, their experiences, their environment, and their goals.
1. Integrative Approach
In integrative approach, connections are focused on rather than isolated facts. Subject matter is taught using interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. Science is taught in relation to Math and vice versa. The content in Science, Health, Art and PE may be a reading material in English. Learning is contextual. Learning cannot be divorced from their lives. Every end of the quarter is an opportunity to integrate learning by a way of culminating activity.
Its goal is to connect what is learned in school to real life situation. It is more on discussion of issues in the society.
Strategies under Integrative Approach
If the teacher thinks of using Integrative approach on a particular lesson, he can choose from the following strategies.
1. Scaffold-Knowledge Integration
- It makes thinking visible.
- It helps students learn from others
- It promotes autonomy and lifelong learning.
2. Content-Based Instruction
- It focuses on the topic using the language they are trying to learn as a tool for developing knowledge.
- It is a more natural way of developing language ability
- It shows the six-T's: Theme, Text, Topics, Threads, Tasks, Transitions
3. Thematic Teaching
- Integrates basic discipline of all subjects.
- Students acquire knowledge when they connect what they are learning to the real world.
- It teaches cognitive skills like reading, mathematics, science and writing in the context of real world subjects.
2. Reflective Approach
- Make the learners look at what they do in the classroom, think about how they do it, and think about how it works.
- Reflective teaching encourages learners to engage in a process of self-observation and self-evaluation.
- By collecting information about what goes on in their classroom, and by analyzing and evaluating this information, they identify and explore their own practices and underlying beliefs.
Strategies under Reflective Approach
This is a process of self-evaluation and self-observation.
1. Self-evaluation and self-reflection.
- It collects information about what goes on inside the classroom.
- It evaluates the obtained information by teacher and learner.
Suggested form of assessment are : diary presentation, paper writing, reports, and journals.
The curriculum ensures that the learners have the opportunity to examine concepts, issues and information in various ways and from various perspectives.
- It provides them opportunities to develop skills of creative and critical thinking, informed decision making, and hypothesis building and problem solving.
- It engages learners to learn by exploration and discovery.
Strategies under Inquiry-Based Approach
1. Cyclic inquiry model and the practical inquiry model
- It demonstrates a process of a given topic. The teacher can start by posting a question on the board.
- It communicates through writing, asking questions, and making comments on one another's post.
2. Knowledge-building community model
- It collects the result at the end to use as data for succeeding activities based on the community of learners.
- It is an activity of doing investigation.
- It encourages learners' interest to manipulate objects, test hypothesis, and work together to solve or prove something.
In this approach, students are directed to be active in the process of constructing meaning and knowledge rather than passively receiving information. It fosters critical thinking and provides learners with a learning environment that helps them make connections with their learning. The students make meaning and knowledge.
Strategies under constructivism
1. Thinking skills
- It guides the students to strive to improve their achievement by consciously developing their ability to consider ideas.
- It helps students analyze their perspective.
- They solve problems and make decisions on their own.
- It engages students in individual or group experiential learning opportunities like project planning, hands on inquiry, analysis and product creation.
3. Direct instruction
- It guides learning to happen the quickest way.
In this approach, the learners are required to work together towards a common goal. This kind of learning is also called collective learning, learning communities, peer teaching. Here, learners work on a common task and they are liable for it as a team. Among the forms of assessment for this learning are action research, project presentation, group power point presentation, reflection paper, exhibit, case studies presentation, debates and collaborative writing.
Strategies under collaborative approach
1. On line collaborative
- Here, learners use technology.
- Projects and other activities are what the students may use in the future.
2. Jigsaw method
- Students are divided in small groups for cooperative learning.
- It develops the following among students: listening, engagement, and empathy.
- Students interact and work independently as well.
3. Think Pair Share
- Students work together to solve a problem.
Teachers never stop learning and searching for the approaches that may be most helpful in achieving the goals for each lesson that they teach the children.
They may find more approaches or strategies that will be more effective for them.