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People of Han and Confucius
There is a proverb that says,"The heart of the people belongs to Han".This includes all of the following:love of the language,fondness for Chinese food,pride in Chinese culture,reverence for our elders and hope for a better future for China.
Today there are 1.3 billion Han Chinese living in China and overseas.It is the largest single ethnic group in existence.One-fifth of the world`s people are Han Chinese.Within China itself,92 per cent of the people are Han Chinese.
Even outside China,the Han Dynasty is remembered.Kanji (Han Characters) is a term still used in Japan today for those Chinese characters the Japanese borrowed from China.The Koreans and Vietnamese also adopted Chinese characters in their own written language.
The first census in recorded history took place during the Han Dynasty.A dictionary was compiled and a university was set up to educate future government ministers in the teachings of Confucius.For 1300 years,success in China depended on passing a set of written examinations based on study of the Confucian classics.So who was this man Confucius who dominated Chinese thinking for so long?
The Emperor Gao, who lived from 256 BC or 247 BC – 195 BC and known commonly throughout China as Gaozu, was the first ever emperor of the Han Dynasty, and ruled all of China from 202 BC to 195 BC. Also known by his personal name Liu Bang, he was among the very few dynasty creators in all Chinese history to have emerged from peasant class and into stardom. Upon his meteoric rise, and just before his conquest of China, he was also addressed as the “Duke of Pei,” as his beginnings can be traced back to his hometown Pei County.
In the years following, Liu was seen aligning himself against Qin Dynasty. He worked himself up serving the big guns of the rebellion. He was sent on a mission to occupy some disputed areas and accomplished this with ease. A great war that lasted for five years finally killed his bitter rival Xiang Yu who supposedly dominated the whole conflict as the former Qin Empire had aligned with him. He proclaimed himself emperor, established the Han Dynasty in 202 BC and chose Chang’an at the Wei principality as his new capital. He then went onto history as the Emperor Gao of Han.
Watch Movie! Confucius!
Screen legend Chow Yun-fat stars as Confucius in the inspiring, action-packed saga of a leader whose wisdom and cunning were more powerful than any sword. In this sweeping battlefield epic, Confucius finds his lands threatened by the fires of war. After leading the nation’s most powerful army to victory against hordes of invaders, the new hero finds even greater danger in the jealous eyes of the aristocrats he fought to protect. From the Producer of John Woo’s Red Cliff and Jet Li’s Warlords, and captured on camera by Oscar-winning Director of Photography Peter Pau (Crouching tiger, Hidden Dragon), Chow Yun-fat delivers the award-nominated performance of a lifetime as a teacher, a military leader, and a legend in Confucius.
Confucius (551-479 BC) was the most famous man in China for 2500 years.His father died when he was three and he was brought up by his mother.As an adult he was impossible to live with.He insisted that every meal be cooked at home and refused to eat anything ready-made from the market.Vegetables not in season were a no-no.If the rice was not white enough or the food was chopped too coarsely,he would push it away.After a few years,his wife had had enough and divorced him.From then on,he disliked all women,calling them "little people with narrow minds".He declared that "Only uneducated woman are virtuous".
In an age of intrigue and vice, he was a voice of morality and virtue. Twenty-five hundred years after his death, he is revered as one of the greatest teachers in history, even credited as galvanizing East Asia's current "economic miracle." Confucius's name is synonymous with ageless wisdom.Leading scholars reveal why his message of "five virtues" was not always accepted by the period's leaders and interviews with a direct descendant provide a personal glimpse into Confucius's legend.
Confucius was a teacher,not a prophet or religious leader,not a writer.He spent the last 13 years of his life travelling from one kingdom to another trying to get a job as a king`s adviser.At that time,China was divided into many states at war with one another.His long question and answer sessions with his students were written down and published as the Sayings of Confucius after his death.He never wrote any books himself.
Confucius taught that to maintain peace and harmony,the son must always respect his father;the father must respect his superior and so on up to the Emperor,who was the Son of Haeven.He said that all the land and all the people in China belonged to the Emperor.Therefore,the minister must always obey his ruler.Not suprisingly,Confucianism was welcomed by Chinese rulers.They recognised the advantage of their officials believing that the Emperor possessed the Mandate to Rule from Haeven.
Confucius also taught that the choice of givernment officials should depend on merit and not birth.How was this done?By a system of written tests or examinations based on Confucian teachings.
Few individuals have shaped their country's civilization more profoundly than the Master Kong, better-known as Confucius (551-479 BC). His sayings and those of his disciples form the foundation of a distinct social, ethical, and intellectual system. This lively new translation offers clear explanatory notes by one of the foremost scholars of classical Chinese, providing an ideal introduction to the Analects for readers who have no previous knowledge of the Chinese language and philosophical traditions.
Promoting virtues such as filial devotion, compassion, loyalty, and propriety, these dialogues between the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius and his disciples comprise the crux of Confucianism. Put faithfulness and truth first; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy faults. Wisdom has no doubts; love does not fret; the bold have no fears. To rank the effort above the prize may be called love. There may be men that do things without knowing why. I do not. To hear much, pick out the good and follow it; to see much and think it over; this comes next to wisdom. When a bird is dying his notes are sad; when man is dying his words are good.
The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known as Confucianism.
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Wheaten food enjoys a long history along Yellow River. Take Shanxi Province as an example, the flour food is made of many kinds of material including wheat flour, sorghum flour and bean flour. Shanxi has different styles of flour food, such as knife peel noodle and Kitten's ear noodle. The flour food has already been emotionally fused into the daily life of the Shanxi People.