People were Divided Into A Number Of Tribes In The Early Middle Age
Rulers In The Past
Rulers In The Past
For the last sixty years, we have chosen our rulers by the system of voting. But in the past, it was not like that. In the early days, kings were probably chosen by Jana, the people. But the entire story changed around 3000 years ago. During this time, some men became recognized as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
People were divided into a number of tribes
People were divided into a number of tribes (Janas) in the early middle age. Each tribe settled in a specific area which included many villages. Each tribe had a king known as Rajan, who was selected on the basis of his bravery. These kings were very different from the kings of later times. They did not have a large standing army or huge palaces. They controlled a very small area. There were two assemblies; the Sabha and the Samiti. It seems that the Sabha was an assembly of the elders and important people and the Samiti were a general assembly comprising members of every family of the Jana. All the important issues were discussed in these assemblies.
Two words were used for describing the community or the people as a whole. One was the word Jana and the other was Vish. The word vision was derived from Vish. Many Vish or Jana are indicated by name. So, we find references to the Bharata Jana or Vish, the Yadu Jana or Vish and the Puru Jana or fish, among others.
Dasas were the people who did not perform sacrifices. Their language was different from that of the Aryans. Later, the term dasa (and the femininie dasi) came to mean slave. Slaves were men and women who were often captured in wars. Slaves had to do whatever work their masters wanted them to do.
Knowledge of the Vedas
The main occupations of the people were agriculture and cattle – rearing. Besides these, other common occupations were chariot – making, pottery – making, metal work, jewelry – making, weaving, carpentry, tanning and fishing. Many people were priests, who also performed the duties of doctors and teachers. They had enough knowledge about plants and medicinal herbs. They passed on the knowledge of the Vedas to the younger generation.
The clay is thrown onto the center of a potter’s wheel, which is rotated. The potters mold the clay to the desired shape on the wheel. This shaped pottery is then fired in a kiln (or furnace) at a high temperature. This process strengthens the pottery, thus making it permanently hard.
The last phase of the settlement clearly shows signs of decline. Due to sacrifices of water or rainfall or a decrease in the fertility of the soil, there was a decline in farming. People began relying more on hunting and gathering food. Construction of the houses showed a change. Small circular huts have been found instead of rectangular one.