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Pirates and Their Weapons: Through the Ages

Updated on March 23, 2018
angela_michelle profile image

Angela is an avid reader who studied English Literature in college. She has a passion for the written word and loves literature.

Weapons were not as used as often thought, since scare tactics played a large rold in pirating.
Weapons were not as used as often thought, since scare tactics played a large rold in pirating. | Source

Few weapons can compare to the sense of terror a sailor would feel when seeing a pirate ship sailing in the distance. Much of the fear was based on stories they heard about ruthless pirates. Due to the great fear instilled by the mere sight of a pirate ship, most major thefts had little or no actual battle due to the complete submission of the merchant ships once the pirates landed. They'd rather let the pirates take what they wanted and keep their lives.

Nonetheless, the pirates always arrived prepared for battle. They would never take on a ship they didn't feel they could defeat and were always prepared with weapons and tools (stocked, set, and cleaned) for a complete pillaging of a ship. A lot of what we know about pirate weaponry is due to Blackbeard's wreckage of the Queen Anne's Revenge that held many great artifacts.



Cannons: Most Powerful Weapon

Cannons were mainly used to frighten their victims. They were rarely used due to their impracticality. It took five to six men, two to five minutes to load one cannon ball. Although it took only one person to fire it, reloading was very taxing, especially on a rocking ship. Their greatest benefit was that a cannon could be shot up to one mile or 1.5 kilometers away; although they were used more commonly at a closer range to frighten enemy ships. Part of why they rarely ever used them was because they were quite dangerous to load and clean, due to being out in the open and in easy view. They also feared that a stray spark could cause it to ignite too soon. By the seventeenth century, most ships were equipped with them.

Pirates were more apt to use swivel guns, which were very similar to cannons, except they were much easier to move, and much more practical to use. Not to say they did not use cannons when they felt it was necessary, but it was rare since a regular cannon was the weight of a modern car. Moving it was a chore that needed at least five men plus a system of ropes and levers. Depending on their needs, many different items were loaded in a cannon, not just cannonballs.

Round cannonballs, which we often think of when we think of cannons, usually weighed 12 pounds or 5.4 kilograms. There were some as small as five pounds and others as heavy as 24 pounds. Hollywood represents cannons as sinking ships, although they rarely had that kind of power.Cannonballs would usually be used to destroy the rigging, masts, and kill or maim the men on the other ship.

The Grapeshot cannonballs consisted of small iron balls that were loaded into a canvas bag then shot from the cannon. These would cause more damage over a wide distance ripping through sails and even men. in 1722, the infamous pirate Bartholomew Roberts was killed by grapeshot during a very bloody battle.

Many pirates chose to use a metal container filled with small iron balls, stones, glass and nails. The concept was similar to grapeshot cannonballs, but were much easier to get a hold of in a short timespan. This was specifically designed to kill sailors on the decks of enemy vessels.

Chain Shot was another kind of cannonball, which was basically two balls held together by a chain. When shot out of a cannon, they smashed masts and sails, turning the masts into splinters! These splinters were known to kill the men aboard as they flew through the air.

Single-Edged Cutlass


Knives and Swords.


When most people think of a pirate's sword, one would think of a single-edged cutlass which has been known as the "sword of the sea." Cutlasses were not initially used as weapons, but were used to cut heavy rope on board. These ended up being handy weapons for those who were not very familiar with sword fighting. A cutlass is known for having a sturdy curved blade that is so sharp it can cut through bone. The shorter and wider, the sturdy they are, but also the more deadly they were, since they could be used in a crowded area, and was more for up close and personal fights. It is believed that the first cutlass was actually not used for cutting rope on the ship, but invented by buccaneers who would use it to butcher meat.

Another common sword used by pirates was a heavy broadsword. These were also used in hand to hand combat. Shorter swords such as these were better used on ships, because longer swords were more apt to accidentally cut the rigging on a ship.


Much like shorter swords, knives were also more useful on ships. Most pirates carried more than one knife at all times. During combat it was never known when they would drop a knife and need to grab a spare.

They did use knives that would fold much like today's pocketknives. These were called gullys. They were actually carried more for a tool on the ship, but during a tight spot, a pirate or other sailor would use it in hand to hand combat when needed.

Daggers were more common during combat since they were designed specifically as a weapon. They are noted for their sharp point, they would be used to thrust at the opponent to stab them, or to block a sword attack. These were more useful than swords since they were easy to hide in belts and in pockets. This was a lot easier to use than a sword since you could use it anywhere on the ship, where swords could cause damage to the ship.

Another kind of knife commonly used was a boucan knife. These were also designed by the buccaneer of the Caribbeans. You can see what one looked like to the right here.

Flintlock Pistol


Firearms and Axes


During the Golden Age of Piracy, which was between 1660 to 1740, the flintlock was the most common firearm used. It had a short barrel, which could easily be stuffed inside a belt or hidden in a coat. Due to the ease of carrying, it was very commonly used. The preparation to use to flintlock was very long, so a pirate would often have many prepared and ready to shoot, before they would enter battle. The preparation usually took at least 30 seconds from an experienced shooter. It included adding a measured amount of gunpowder into the barrel, place a lead ball into a wadding material, then shove both within the flintlock. Once pressed down, they would add a little more gunpowder. This all would allow for a tight seal. When shot, it would release a blue smoke. Sometimes the damp sea air would moisten the powder and the pistol would not shoot. Due to its unreliability, it has been rarely the primary weapon used in a battle.

Muskets were very similar to flintlock pistols in that they also only held one shot. So after use, pirates would either drop them or begin to use them as clubs. One of the more common muskets was the Marksman's musket. They were a long gun that could be used at a further distance than most firearms used at that time. But due to its unreliability aim, it was not always accurate at far distances.



A blunderbuss was another very common pirate firearm. It is most commonly recognized as an early form of the shotgun we use today, although on board it was often much shorter than the ones we see today. It is known for having a flare at the muzzle.

Handguns were far more frequently used than cannons, since few knew how to use a cannon safely. Although guns on board, or more specifically gunpowder was very dangerous to store on a ship. In 1669, the infamous pirate Henry Morgan blew up an entire store of gunpowder with a single gun, by accident. It damaged, but did not sink the ship.


Pistols and axes were favorite weapons for raiding. Pistols were used to shoot, axes were used to cut down rigging making sails fall. Not only that, but they could also use axes to help climb up the sides of larger vessels. These boarding axes easily cut thick rope, which would destroy the sailing ability of a large ship. Although broad axes were the most common, during actual battle, they preferred a battle ax, which was a medium sized ax that was much easier to handle.

Hand Grenade


Things That Go Boom

Pirates often used grenades. Although their hand grenades were not like the ones you see to the right. Usually they would find an old wine bottle, fill it with gunpowder and set fire to a foul smelling sulfur. This would serve not only as an explosive harmful boom, but also as a stink bomb. In fact, they would often use stink bombs. Usually they made these by smashing a clay jar that would be filled with burning sulfur and rotten fish guts. They would usually throw this over on a merchant ship before stepping foot on the ship, so that way the crew members would be too sick to fight.

Arrows, Barbs, Hooks, and Other Sharp Objects!

Vikings, who were also pirates, commonly used bows and arrows during battle. They were very skilled at using bows and arrows. It was rumored they could catch an arrow in midair and throw it back at their enemy.

Sharp objects were often common amongst other pirates as well. French corsairs used barefoot barbs. These were little scraps of metal with spikes out of each end, so that way no matter where it landed, there would be one sharp end pointing up. These worked well since most sailors would walk on deck barefoot, because shoes could cause them to slip on deck. Stepping on one of these would cause severe injury that would cripple them and their foot.

Grappling Hooks was another weapon that pirates used. Instead of causing injury they would often throw these onto the decks of merchants. Once it hit it would dig into the deck and they would pull the two ships together so that way the pirates could jump from their ship to the merchant ship where they could get their loot.

They also used marlin spikes. Marlin spikes look similar to an ice pick, but were used to anchor the boat or secure lines on the mast. In a tight battle, they were often picked up to be used as swords if they were found without their sword.

Other Things to Add Fear

Not all of their weapons were instantly viewed as dangerous. For instance, one of their best weapons was the small boats they kept on their ships. They were able to sneak up behind a merchant ship completely undetected by climbing aboard these small boats.

The most feared weapon was never used to do actual harm, but once seen would cause fear in any merchant sailor. They are known as the Jolly Rogers. Jolly Rogers comes from the French word Jlie Rouge, which meant "pretty red." These flags received their name, since a pirate ship was supposed to symbolize bloodshed. They would raise these flags to say, "Yo, this is pirate ship and we want your loot!" Once seen, merchants would try their best to flee. A joly roger often would have a picture of skeletons, daggers, bleeding hearts or any other frightening image that the ship could imagine. It was unique to each pirate ship. This article discusses the Jolly Roger in more detail.

Although pirates often had many seafaring weapons, they notoriously used many of their tools and modified a lot of land weapons so that way they would be useful on the sea. Pirate's weapons were not always used, but they were maintained to strike fear.

© 2010 Angela Michelle Schultz


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    • AvineshP profile image

      Avinesh Prahladi 4 years ago from Chandigarh

      I must say that the Marlinspike is one of the smallest and the most deadly pirate weapons. I really appreciate the effort that you have put in this hub.

      Thanks !!!!

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 6 years ago from United States

      At least a year and a half ago, but I wrote it longer than that ago.

    • profile image

      valerie_smith 6 years ago

      when did you submit this?

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 6 years ago from United States

      You might be right. But in my studies I had often heard this. I imagine there bows are not as fast as ours, but the likelihood of being able to do that is probably very unlikely.

    • profile image

      cikub 6 years ago

      This bit: "Vikings, ... were so skilled at using bows and arrows that they were able to catch an arrow in midair and throw it back at their enemy" is clearly not correct for two reasons. Firstly a human hand cannot react that fast to catch an arrow. Secondly, by their very nature arrows are used at long(ish) range and it very difficult to throw an arrow more than about 10-15ft - and then with a force that at most would bounce harmly off anything it contacts. Source: 15 years of medieval re-enactment experience with a large array of weapons.

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      I have no idea, he should take it to a pawn shop and find out! That is absolutely awesome!

    • profile image

      Rhonda  7 years ago

      my brother found a cannonball in some dead coral. The coral was taken off the coast of Miami. It's little but heavy. How much do u think it's worth?

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      Thanks! I love doing research! It's my favorite thing about writing. :)

    • epigramman profile image

      epigramman 7 years ago

      ...endlessly fascinating and obviously well-researched hub - if I were a teacher I would give this project an

      A + ....and let you have the rest of the school year off with pay!

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      Interesting?!?! That is really cool. I might just have to research this.

    • Jason R. Manning profile image

      Jason R. Manning 7 years ago from Sacramento, California

      hello, nice hub, as for your Molotov cocktail conversation, the Germans forced the French to distill a good portion of their wine mixed with an oil to make these for use against the Russians. I came across this recently because of a great little book called "Wine & War," the French, the Nazis & the battle for France's greatest treasure.

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      You know what, I kind of remember something like that actually. That kind of thing bugs me until I figure out who used it. I wonder where I had heard of bombs like that.

    • dahoglund profile image

      Don A. Hoglund 7 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids

      I didn't mean to say it was used by pirates. It was a homemade device of filling a bottle with gasoline andmaking a fuse from a rag. I mostly heard about them when they were used against invading Russian tanks, although I am unsure of what country. Later they came to be manufactured and are considered illegal, according to wikipedia.

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      I've never heard about the Molotov cocktail? Interesting.

    • dahoglund profile image

      Don A. Hoglund 7 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids

      I haven't read a pirate book or seen a pirate movie in a long time. These do look like the weapons that would be used by most anyone in that day that had the occasion to.The bottle filled with gunpowder and a fuse is sort of what we later called a Molotov cocktail.Except it, I think, used gasoline.

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      mquee, I actually could write a LOT more, I have done some research on modern day pirates, but I prefer the history of them. They still use firearms and knives today, just not cannons! LOL... It's actually quite fascinating. If you ever finish your book, I'd love to read it, you'll have to let me know if you ever write it, get it published etc! I wish I had a flare for fiction, but I stick to non-fiction.

    • mquee profile image

      mquee 7 years ago from Columbia, SC

      I have wanted to write a novel on modern day pirates, but still have a lot of research to do. I hope you write more on this subject.

    • angela_michelle profile image

      Angela Michelle Schultz 7 years ago from United States

      Thanks for the sweet compliment. I actually have studied pirates quite in depth. I used to think I would write a book about it, but then kind of put that on the back burner. Then when I started here, I thought I would write a few on them. I have tons and tons more information on pirates.

    • mquee profile image

      mquee 7 years ago from Columbia, SC

      This is a very in depth article on the use of weapons by pirates. I found the information regarding the cannons to be very interesting and surprising. Thank you for sharing.


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