ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Planning Techniques

Updated on January 5, 2010

 

Planning

Planning is an anticipatory theoretical activity which is undertaken to accommodate the future course of events. Any activity that is intended to cater to the present requirement may not adapt to the future hence such activities have to be carried out in such a way that they respond to future occurrences.

Planning can be defined as a process of doing orderly managed sequences of actions to achieve the targeted goal or goals. In other word it is defined as foresight in formulating and implementing programmers and policies. It is generally oriented for future and present as well. Planning can be applied in any field. It is generally focused on resource allocation over a time period for sustainable development. It is done for social welfare which is supported by politics as well as resources. Successful planning is generally guided by past experience. Besides this, criteria for good planning should have answer of questions like why to plan? , how? For whom? And by whom?

Planning is a problem solving activity

Ø      German Philosopher Karl Popper said that in the world evolves numerous problems and solve consciously and unconsciously. Solution of the problem is accompanied by other problems which also need to solve. Human beings are always busy solving one or another problem. Ability to solve problems depends on a number of factors including

Ø      Past Experiences

Ø      Motivation

Ø      Emotions

Ø      Flexibility

Ø      Set

PROCESS OF PLANNING

In recent terms five approaches for planning process have been developed. These five approaches have been summed up in an acronym as SITAR based on the first letters of Synoptic, Incremental, Transactive, Advocacy and Radical planning. The sitar is a five stringed musical instrument which can be played by performing on a single string at a time or by weaving a blend of harmony and dissonance from all five. The same applies to SITAR as taxonomy of planning theories where each can render a reasonable solo performance in good hands, but fuller possibilities can be created by use of each theory in conjunction with each other. Explanation of each in an individual pattern is done below.

1)      Synoptic Planning

Synoptic planning or the rational comprehensive approach is the dominant tradition and the point of departure for most other planning approaches, which represents either modifications of synoptic rationality or reactions against it. Synoptic planning typically looks at problems from a systems viewpoints, using conceptual or mathematical models relating ends (objective) to means (resources and constraints), with heavy reliance on numbers and quantitative analysis.

Synoptic planning has typically four classical elements:

Ø      Goal setting

Ø      Identification of policy alternatives

Ø      Evaluation of means against ends

Ø      Implementation of decisions

Despite its capacity for great methodical refinement and elaboration, the real power of synoptic approach is its basic simplicity.

2)      Incremental Planning

Charles E. Lindblom, a chief spokesperson for incremental planning, has described it as “partisan mutual adjustment” or “disjoint incrementalism”. According to the Lindblom's theory nature and extent of action is decided by adding an incremental change in the desired direction to status quo. Current institutions and the bargaining process often address planning in this approach. Incrementalism is based not on 'optimization but on satisfying through successive approximations' and also tries to replace "planner's values by bargaining process and vales of existing institutions. The case for incremental planning derives from a series of critisms leveled at synoptic rationality: its insensitivity to existing institutional performances capabilities: its reductionist epistemology; its failure to appreciate the cognitive limits of decision-makers, who cannot “optimize” but only “satisfies” choices by successive aproximations.

3)      Transactive Planning

The Transactive Planning was proposed by Friedman, the approach focuses the target group from goal setting to various steps of planning aiming to be more pragmatic and demand oriented revealing policy issues to be addressed. The basic philosophy of this planning approach is the inclusion of the people in the decision making of the planning for whom the plan is being produced. Thus this approach is based on personal knowledge rather than processed knowledge and aims at social reconstruction through a process of mutual learning.

Transactive planning is carried out in face-to-face contact with people affected by planning decisions, as social learning is a newer version of Transactive planning. This results in decentralized planning process like synoptic approach towards centralization, and allows beneficiary control over the process. In contrast to incremental planning, more emphasis is given to processes of personal and organizational development and not just the achievement of specific functional objectives.

4)      Advocacy Planning

Advocacy calls for development of plural plans rather than a unit plan. The advocacy planning approach is the response to a problem. It is felt that the value free rationality is not possible. In plural planning, planning decision will take place after the debate of the planners representing one for each interest group of the society in the given limits of resources. Going public on issue will make planning a democratically approached solution. Advocacy planning has proven successful as a means of blocking intensive plans and challenging traditional views of a unitary public interest.  One effect of the advocacy movement has been to shift formulation of social policy from backroom negotiations out into the open.

Advocacy planning has been both reflected and contributed to general trend in planning away from neutral objectivity in definitions of social problems in favor of applying more explicit principle of social justice.

5)      Radical Planning

This planning is an ambiguous tradition, with two prominent streams of thinking that acts together. In one side it is associated with spontaneous activitism guided by an idealistic but pragmatic vision of self-reliance and mutual aid. Like Transactive planning it stresses the importance of personal growth, cooperative spirit and freedom from manipulation by anonymous forces. This is radicalism in the literal sense of going back to the roots content to operate in the interstices of establishment.

 

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      JESSE 

      6 years ago

      JUST MAKE IT SUMMARISED

    • profile image

      tia kashyap 

      6 years ago

      thax yr...hope it will help in my proj

    • profile image

      miranda 

      6 years ago

      thank you ...!4 dis..now i know how to make a dcision w/ plan

    • profile image

      paul 

      6 years ago

      thanx 4 this hub. Bt still i get confused when reading this theories. Make more simplicity

    • profile image

      Kevin Darrel B. Sawan 

      6 years ago

      Good references

    • profile image

      Stranger 

      8 years ago

      Thanks for the hub i was searching this kind of article since last few months. Thanks for posting

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)