ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What is Psychological Capital?

Updated on October 22, 2012

Dr. Fred Luthans

Positive Psychology and Positive Organizational Behavior

At the turn of the 21st century, Martin Seligman, former head of the American Psychological Association, recognized an imbalance in psychological research in the United States and abroad. From his point of view, researchers in the field of psychology had given too much attention to the negative side of personal psychology and too little attention to the positive, healthy side. In light of this problem, Seligman called for research in what came to be known as "positive psychology." This new wave of research was meant to examine the 'average man' (rather than the "abnormal man") with "an interest in finding out what works, what is right, and what is improving."

Following this new wave of research into positive psychology, organizational behavior scientists began to construct organizational and leadership models that looked for the positive antecedents relevant to optimal work performance. At the University of Michigan, organizational scholars e.g. Jane Dutton, Robert Quinn, Kim Cameron began what they aptly called "positive organizational scholarship."

Similarly, scholars mostly associated with the University of Nebraska's Gallup Research Center (e.g. Fred Luthans, Bruce Avolio and their colleagues) began a thread of research called "positive organizational behavior." For the most part, this later research concentrated on the development of conceptual frameworks for "authentic leadership" and "psychological capital." This hub gives a brief description of psychological capital.

Hope - Will Power and Way Power to Accomplish a Goal

The first component of positive psychological capital is hope. Hope in ordinary language tends to have the connotation of "wishing for the best." However, within the psychological capital framework, hope is operationally defined as the willpower (referred to as agency) and waypower ( or pathways) to set and accomplish goals. This definition of hope was first introduced by Dr. Charles Snyder and his colleagues. Hope in the psychological capital framework includes the wherewithal to devise pathways and alternate pathways to accomplish objectives and goals. Thus, 'hope" drives a leader or follower to their optimal performance in the workplace.

Self-efficacy - Personal Confidence to Successfully Complete a Task or Objective

The concept of self-efficacy is perhaps the most well-known and widely researched concept in the psychological capital framework. Self-efficacy ( or confidence) was introduced by social psychologist Albert Bandura and can be defined as the relative certainty an individual has that he or she can accomplish a given task. Self-efficacy is formulated through (a) past mastery of a task; (b) vicariously learning through observation of a respected other; (c) persuasion from a siginificant other; and (d) physiological and/or psychological arousal. A leader or follower within an organization or at a workplace will more likely fulfill their assigned roles if they have personal confidence that they can do so. Each persons level of self-efficacy will ebb and flow in conjunction with a given context.

Optimism - Personal Assurance of a Positive Outcome

Optimism is the third component of Fred Luthans' psychological capital. Optimism refers to the personal assurance an individual has that activities will result in a positive outcome. Luthans' and his colleagues looked to Martin Seligman and Charles S. Carver for conceptualization of optimism.

Seligman tied optimism to attribution theory, and defined it as “making an internal, relatively stable, and global attribution regarding positive events such as goal achievement, and an external, relatively unstable, and specific cause about negative events like a failed attempt at reaching a goal." In simple terms, Seligman suggested that optimists tend to interpret bad events as being only temporary, while pessimists interpret bad events as being permanent; and vice versa.

In contrast to Seligman’s focus on optimism through attribution theory, Carver and Scheier (2002) took an approach that linked optimism to expectancy theory whereby the expectation of a desirable outcome will result from increased effort. Thus, Carver and Scheier concluded simply, “optimists are those who expect good things to happen to them; while pessimists are those who expect bad things to happen to them."

Resilience - The Ability to Bounce Back in the Face of Adversity (or Severe Success)

Resilience is the fourth component of psychological capital. in this context, Luthans looked to Ann Masten for the operational definition. Thus, in this context, resilience refers to an individual's ability to rebound or bounce back from adversity or extreme success. A person who displays this quality is tenacious and as such keeps going in the face of seemingly impossible obstacles and odds.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Millionaire Tips profile image

      Shasta Matova 

      7 years ago from USA

      I took several organizational behavior for my MBA, but it always felt like something was missing. I don't think they covered psychological capital, so thank you for bringing me up to date with my knowledge. Voted up.

    • ecoggins profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from Corona, California

      Denise, thank you for your comment. Psychological capital did indeed spring from the positive psychology movement. It is good to hear that practicing psychologists are pursuing what works as much as they are what does not.

    • denise.w.anderson profile image

      Denise W Anderson 

      7 years ago from Bismarck, North Dakota

      It is interesting to note that the psychologists are studying well people as well as those with abnormal issues and that research is showing that those with what you call "psychological capital" are those with the basic elements of hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resillience. These are the things that we try to instill in the self-improvement process for those that are wanting to make major life changes for the better.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)