Resources of the World
The world is usually seen as divided between a “North” and a “South”. The North consists mostly of developed countries, where occupations reflect the life-styles of a rich society: maximum numbers of people are employed in specialized services, while trade and industry follow next and only a small number of people are employed in agriculture, livestock or fisheries. In the South most people are employed in agriculture, and fewer people are required in specialized services while trade and industry are also lagging behind.
It is true that some of the developed countries, such as Australia, are situated in the South, however, the division between the developed world and the developing world is still helpful when we study occupations of the world.
Agriculture and Livestock
Agriculture is common throughout the world, but the patterns in the developed countries are different from those in the developing countries. For instance, agriculture covers a large area of land in the United States, but only 3% of the populations is occupied in the work most of the work is done by machines. In poor countries like Pakistan, however, there are areas (such as the semi arid regions of Thar) where some people do not even have animals to help them in irrigation, and men and women pull heavy buckets from the wells to irrigate their lands. People living in areas that are not best suited for agriculture often cultivate livestock. Again, the patterns of livestock farming differ in the developed countries where it is far more organized and sometimes becomes a specialized business.
Fishery is a thriving profession throughout the world. Modern techniques of fishing include the use of big trawlers that catch fish from the deep seas with highly effective nets. However, these methods are sometimes bad for the environment while the traditional form of nets only catch big fish and leave the smaller ones to grow; the mechanical nets of more developed trawlers sometimes do not leave any fish in the water to be caught the next time!
Minerals are Blessing of Almighty Allah
Industry, Trade and Commerce
Almost all the countries of the world today have developed some form of industry. The developed countries specialize in heavy industry, or factories that can make big machines, while the developing countries usually have industries where those machines are assembled once they are imported from the industrialized countries. Spare parts are sometimes made in the developing countries.
Trade is the exchange of goods in return for foreign exchange since the currency of one country is not acceptable in another, foreign exchange, or a currency acceptable to all countries is needed for international trade. Gold was used for this purpose in the past, but now the US Dollar is commonly accepted as foreign exchange.
Commerce is the business of money, including, insurance, stock exchange, banks, etc. in today’s world, it is also an international business, and usually the commerce of one country is highly influenced by the trends in the international market.
Mining is a very old profession, perhaps older than agriculture. Today, the most important mining operation is the extraction of petroleum, as it is required in almost all walks of life in a modern society. Other minerals are also important, and hence mining is carried out throughout the world. The developing countries usually export their minerals and natural resources in a raw form, because they do not have suitable industries for processing these substances and turning them into products. The developed countries import this raw material, in addition to their own natural resource, and process them to manufacturer important products, some of which are also sold back to the developing countries.
Mining has a very negative impact on the environment and it s therefore important to carry out the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) before carrying it out. Through EIA, engineers try to predict the impact of the activity on the environment. Today there is more pressure on mining companies to try to restore the environment to some extent once mining is finished in the region.
Services are also a very important occupation. Basically, there are two types of jobs: public and private. Public servants are employed by the government and they serve the people. All departments of a government, such as electricity, police, communications, administration, and so on, are run by public servants.
Private jobs are offered by private companies, such as business firms, private schools, advertising agencies, entertainment companies and so on. Many people in the modern world also choose to become self employed or work freelance. They do not take up a job anywhere, but offer their services to people for a fee.