- Education and Science
Rizal in Madrid
Early in August, 1890 – Rizal arrived in Madrid
- He tried all legal means to seek justice for his family and the calamba tenants, but to no avail.
- He almost fought to duels – one with Antonio Luna and the other to Wenceslao E. Retana.
- Leonor Rivera married a British Engineer.
Failure to Get Justice for family
Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal immediately sought the help of the Filipino Colony, the Asociacion Hispano – Filipina, and the Liberal Spanish newspapers (La Justicia, El Globo, La Republica, El resumen).
M. H. Del Pilar – acted as his lawyer.
Dr. Dominador Gomez – secretary of Asociacion Hispano – Filipina.
More terrible news reached Rizal in Madrid:
- From Silvestre Ubaldo, he received a copy of the ejectment order by the Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other calamba tenants.
- From Saturnina, he learned of the deportation of Paciano, Antonio Lopez, Silvestre Ubaldo, Teong, and Dandoy to Mindoro
- His parents were forcibly ejected from their home and were then living in the house of Narcisa.
Rizal’s Eulogy to Panganiban
Jose Ma. Panganiban – his friend and his talented co-worker in the propaganda.
August 19, 1890 – date of the death of Jose Ma. Panganiban because of a lingering illness.
Aborted Duel with Antonio Luna
End of August, 1890 – Rizal attended a social reunion of the Filipinos in Madrid.
- Wine was served in the reunion.
- After drinking so many glasses, the guests became more loquacious.
- Antonio Luna became drunk.
- Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead
- He was blaming Rizal for his failure.
- Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks for Nellie.
- Rizal heard him and challenge for a duel.
- The Filipinos were shocked of the incident.
- They tried to pacify Rizal and Luna, pointing out to both that such a duel would damage their cause in Spain.
- Luna, when he became sober, realized that he had made a fool and he apologized to Rizal
Rizal Challenges Retana to Duel
On another occasion, he challenged another man to duel – Wenceslao E. Retana.
– The bitter enemy of Rizal in Pen.
– A talented Spanish scholar was then a press agent of the friars in Spain.
– Used to attack the Filipinos, including Rizal, in various newspapers in Madrid.
– He imprudently wrote an article in La Epoca an anti-Filipino newspaper in Madrid, asserting that the family and friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands in Calamba by the Dominicans.
- Such an insult stirred Rizal to action.
- Immediately, he sent his seconds to Retana with his challenge to a duel.
- Retana at once published a retraction and apology in the newspapers.
- The incident silenced Retana’s pen against Rizal.
- Years afterward, Retana wrote the first book-length biography of the greatest Filipino hero, whose talents he came to recognize and whose martyrdom he glorified.
Infidelity of Leonor Rivera – Rizal lost his gold watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera, his beloved sweetheart while he attended a play in the Teatro Apollo together with his friends, and that incident proved to be a bad omen.
December, 1890 – Rizal received a letter from Leonor, announcing her coming married with an Englishman.
February 15, 1891 – Blumentritt replied to the letter of Rizal and comforted Rizal when Rizal confide to him about his agony and broken heart.
Rizal-Del Pilar Rivalry – In 1890, there arise an unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and del Pilar for supremacy.
January 1, 1891 (New Year’s Day) – the Filipinos of Madrid met to reorganize the Asociacion Hispano – Filipina and to elect a new leader who would act as a spokesman of the Filipino cause in Europe.
Filipinos were divided into two rival camps:
· Rizalistas or Rizal’s friends
· Pilaristas or del Pilar’s friends
Rizalistas – worked hard for the election of Rizal.
Pilaristas – fought for del Pilar’s election
Back to Brussels – Since Rizal walked out from the election for the new leader because he found out that only 19 people voted him, he go back to Brussels.
February, 1891 – he left Madrid and proceeded to Biarritz, where he was a welcomed guest of the Bousted at their Villa Eliada.
Valentin Ventura – Rizal’s friend and companion in Paris, where Rizal staying with him.
April 4, 1891 – He wrote to Jose Ma. Basa, expressing his wish to live in Hongkong and practice medicine.
Middle of April 1891 – Rizal turned to Brussels for one reason, to finish his second novel.