- Education and Science
Roles nervous glutinous... brain cells that you ignorant!
When we address talking about the brain cells, we usually mean the nerve cells (neurons) that biological cells that intertwines many branches in complex networks and pop up constantly with electric pulses. But neurons constitute only half the cells in the brain. The rest of them are known as glutinous nervous or simply glia cells.
The first who documented glial cells is the world's physiological Henri Dotruchet in 1824, despite not having any idea what are those cells, it referred to simply as Pellets molluscs between nerves. He gave the German biologist Rudolf Verso in 1856 to name those sticky "nervous clingy" pellets describing it as a kind of putty and an integral part of the neural elements. In the following decades, scientists have known that this paste is made of independent cells form complex structural networks with nerve cells and blood vessels.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, this idea began to fade and a lot of neuroscientists suggested that nervous glutinous In fact, his role is much more than previously thought may have been fueling the nerve cells or help them contact their treating them or after infection.
Since the sixties onwards, neuroscientists have confirmed that they are nervous glutinous brain designers, doctors, police, janitors and gardeners of the brain. In the past five years, the researchers explained that nervous glutinous partner who is indispensable in the nerve cell.
Here we will present to you four recently discovered roles played by the nervous glia in the brain...
Neurons do not always generate the destination to stay and settle in it. In the developing brain there is the so-called glia cells radial They form an extensive network able through which nerve cells from moving to where you should settle it, and when there is no longer a need for this glutinous radiographic turn into other types of glia, such as astrocytes (astrocytes) or to a few cells of the crinkle (oligodendrocytes) or so that it can be transformed into nerve cells.
Scientists recently discovered that a certain subset of radial glia cells capable of becoming nerve cells in the top area of the cerebral cortex, the brain wrinkles external layer responsible for more mental talents.
A series of studies in the last three years, confirmed that some glial cells secrete molecules that promote the formation of new connections between nerve cells, engulf and digest synapses weak and few use and change the micro-circuits in the brain throughout life.
Clean up the mess
Each member is present in the body needs to clean up crew removes excess fluid from the need and dead cells and kidney debris that could disrupt business as usual. And the brain is no exception. Scientists knew years glia cells since branched finely called small nerve cells (microglia) and play a key role in the waste management team in the brain. The small nerve cells wander to the process of searching for tangles harmful proteins and the remains of dead cells and parts of the DNA is required, but in a study published in the previous year, indicating that microglia are necessary in order to eliminate amyloid protein blocks beta and other protein blocks that are related to Alzheimer's neurological and strikes related illness.
Microglia are not the only member of the tribe glial that help to remove waste. Three years ago, Jeffrey Elif and his colleagues from the University of Rochester Medical Center injected with fluorescent molecules in the fluid that surrounds the brains of live mice. Particles moved through a network of channels formed by known as the atrocities that surround the arteries and veins glow. He concluded elf and his team that the channels as a drainage system of the brain.
Help nerve cells to communicate
The few glial cell primary Alngsn OPC is one of the most unique species and active nervous glutinous. When mature cell based wrap its arms around the branches of neurons, then the Bnglifaa such as rubber which insulates electrical wires. Since more than a decade scientists have discovered that these cells form a clash nervous points with nerve cells and change their behavior based on the electrical signals obtained from these cells is the only glial cells that do.
The OPC cell surfaces studded with proteins known as NG2 and found in a previous study that this protein relates to neighboring nerve cells and allows nerve cells to communicate with each other.
Help you to breathe
Glial astrocytes wrapped tightly around the blood vessels and feed neurons and puts them in an excellent position to monitor and regulate the contents of the blood circulatory system, according to their need.
n a study conducted by Alexander Goren and colleagues from University College in London to find out how astrocytes may respond in the brain of rats to fluctuating blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide. And it turned out that the glial cells critical in every breath we take.