ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • History & Archaeology»
  • History of Europe

VIKING - 12: NJORD'S PLOUGHMEN (SEAFARERS), Marine Technology (2) "Ride The Mare's Tail!"

Updated on December 15, 2017

"Better weight than wisdom a wayfarer cannot carry. The poor man's strength away from home is worth more than wealth".

Havamal

Ride the mare's tail, see it flow free in the wind astern

The popular conception of a Viking longship. In truth the shields would have been taken off the sides - they would only be visible on review, in a harbour, for identification of the men sailing a ship
The popular conception of a Viking longship. In truth the shields would have been taken off the sides - they would only be visible on review, in a harbour, for identification of the men sailing a ship | Source
A model of the Gokstad ship. The shields would have been taken in before the oars were run out for rowing. Also, if the sail was up and full with the wind there would be no need for the oars to be in their holes.  Modeller's license.
A model of the Gokstad ship. The shields would have been taken in before the oars were run out for rowing. Also, if the sail was up and full with the wind there would be no need for the oars to be in their holes. Modeller's license. | Source

There is nothing on the preserved ships...

to show that there were ever benches between oar holes, and historians have assumed that crews sat on seamen's chests (the ones discovered at the Oseberg dig were the right height for use as rowing seats).

A number of sources mention seamen keeping their belongings in water-proofed kit bags, or 'hudfat' that could also be used as sleeping bags. In one of the warships located at Skuldelev in northern Sjaelland (Denmark) it seems the cross-beams were used as seating for rowers. One 'expert' asserted that Viking oarsmen stood whilst rowing (try rowing even a dinghy whilst standing, where the blades would be at a steep angle down into the water - progress would be hard, to say the least)! Even seated on seamen's chests could make rowing an uphill task without 'foot-stops' to press your boots on whilst rowing. I've rowed boats with and without foot-stops, and definitely prefer 'with'! You get up speed, for one thing. If your feet keep slipping you just can't get into it. Having rowed the length of an Alpine lake - the eighteen mile long Woerther See - in my teens, I know how important it is to have something to rest your feet against with the effort of rowing distances.

Oars could be sixteen or seventeen feet in length, those on the Gokstad ship being of seventeen feet or more. The different oar lengths would have been shaped according to the profile of the ships' sides, those in the centre presumably being shorter than those towards the ends. The Norsemen normally rowed one man to an oar, but in times of war two may have been the norm for ship speed and manoeuverability, possibly even a third with a shield to keep the outward-most oarsmen from being struck by arrows or spears (and to add numbers as a fighting force as with the introduction of marines in later centuries).

Olaf Tryggvason's 'Long Sepent' had up to eight men per width at the Battle of Svold in AD1000, with thirty further men as 'marksmen' and to ward off arrows and other airborne weaponry from the rowing crew members.

Riding the waves on the open sea was to be pursued with the help of a great square sail. By the 8th Century this was the norm for ships sailing around and away from Scandinavia. No doubt this was amongst the greatest of the strides in Norse ship technology. A ship named 'Viking' which crossed the Atlantic in AD1893 took only twenty-eight days at speeds of around eleven knots under sail. 'Viking' was a reconstruction of the Gokstad ship and carried a sail made of wool, strengthened by diagonal strips of leather. Rope or linen designed to keep the woollen sails from becoming distorted by salt water spray, wear and tear was also used.

The Gotland rune stones show a form of 'reefing' lines fixed to the sail bottoms. These drew in the sail when pulled to lessen the amount of sail open to the wind, and thus being torn under gale force. Sagas tell us of sails being white, checked with blue, red or green, the Gokstad ships' sails having been white with red stripes. Mast length was usually a little less than a half-length of the ship, so when lowered - as for a fight - the sail would clear the beams astern. No masts have been found intact, however.

To starboard at the stern (originally the word being 'steerboard') was a huge oar with a handle that could be dismounted, i.e., the rudder. This device made the ship highly manoeuverable, whether under sail or oar power. 'Throwing' the rudder hard against the flow of the water could bring the ship about sharply, provided the wind did not capsize her.

Stem and stern were mounted with detachable figureheads - serpents ('orme','worms', or dragons) being the customary choice. The use of these can be dated back to either the first or second century AD, as verified by rock carvings found in Norway. The figureheads gave the vessels their names, i.e., 'Ormen Lange' (The Long Serpent), 'Bison', 'Crane' - even a man's helmeted head has been noted as a figurehead. Icelandic law demanded the figureheads be taken down on nearing land, lest the island's guardian spirits fled in alarm or took offence. In the Bayeux Tapestry even, William's ships are seen at sea with their figureheads displayed, whereas in the havens* of Hastings and Pevensey they have been taken down.


*In the 11th Century both havens were deep water inlets that have since silted up, the coastline having changed radically with sea changes.

Mobility, the Viking way

A sight to curdle the blood - Harald sigurdsson brought a fleet of over two hundred ships in September, 1066. Two weeks later sons Magnus and Olaf left again with two dozen or so...
A sight to curdle the blood - Harald sigurdsson brought a fleet of over two hundred ships in September, 1066. Two weeks later sons Magnus and Olaf left again with two dozen or so...
A sleek, narrow 'karve' rides at anchor in a fjord, awaiting a nobleman, or even a king
A sleek, narrow 'karve' rides at anchor in a fjord, awaiting a nobleman, or even a king
The trading haven of Kaupang in southern Norway. The haven south of Oslo saw custom from as far away as Arabia, trading in silver Dirhams
The trading haven of Kaupang in southern Norway. The haven south of Oslo saw custom from as far away as Arabia, trading in silver Dirhams

From finding a sunken longship in the Roskilde Fjord, to sailing a newly built vessel from Denmark to Ireland, follow the saga of the Sea Stallion of Glendalough. The story begins at the time Harald Sigurdsson, 'Hardradi' beset Denmark to extend his power. Several ships of different sizes were sunk in the fjord to hamper the Norse king, one built far away beyond the Irish Sea from Irish timber.

Full colour images and diagrams show how a Viking ship was built, its component parts and their roles in its working. Expertly guided and documented, well worth the investment. I enjoyed reading my copy and have used it as reference in my own writing.

Shape of trade

This is a view of the Nydam ship in northern Norway near Tromsoe
This is a view of the Nydam ship in northern Norway near Tromsoe | Source
An overview of a smaller knarr, or trading ship with deeper draught than a longship
An overview of a smaller knarr, or trading ship with deeper draught than a longship | Source

Follow HUNDING'S SAGA to catch a glimpse of seafaring life back in the early 11th Century, through the Oestsjoeen (pron. 'Oestsyoen' = The Eastern or Baltic Sea), down the rivers to the Sorte Hav (pron. 'Sorte how' = Black Sea) and Miklagard ('the Great City or Fortification). Lots of descriptions of life at sea, chases and so on.

Next: 13 Strengthening Walls



Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • alancaster149 profile image
      Author

      Alan R Lancaster 6 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

      Thanks Anne. The images are off the Internet, though. There was a TV programme about Sea Stallion over here that I bought a paperback book about and located the images today, along with a couple of the Skuldelev ships I used in Part 1. Next up is a piece about the Norsemen around Britain in general

    • awordlover profile image

      awordlover 6 years ago

      One of my favorite chapters in history. I just love visiting your hubs...they just take me away to far off places. Excellently written and great photos!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)