Science: What is Physics?
What is Physics: By definition
Firstly let's take a look at the definitions of physics; reference.dictionary.com states:
- The branch of science concerned with the properties of matter and energy and the relationships between them. It is based on mathematics and traditionally includes mechanics, optics, electricity and magnetism, acoustics, and heat. Modern physics, based on quantum theory, includes atomic, nuclear, particle, and solid-state studies. It can also embrace applied fields such as geophysics and meteorology
- Physical properties of behaviour: the physics of the electron
- Archaic natural science or natural philosophy
If we break down from the definition and look at it in a broader sense. It is a study and analysis of nature, which is done in order to work out how the universe behaves.
What is physics?
What is Physics: A History
We will now look at the history of physics in broad strokes. It is one of the oldest scientific disciplines. It was first formally studied in archaic Greece between 650BC and 480BC, during this time it was known as natural philosophy. It was during the first part of the 5th Century that the theory of atomisation was developed, which talked about everything being made of inadvisable elements called 'atoms'.
Aristotle was the first credited with calling the study of natural laws 'physics'. It developed into a very contentious subject and often contradicted the church which at the time, were seen as the leading scholars. A famous example of this is the heliocentric theory which put the Sun at the centre of the solar system and not the Earth which at the time was seen as close to blasphemy.
The 17th Century saw a major advancement with many famous names such as Francis Bacon, William Gilbert, Robert Hooke and of course Galileo Galilei, who was christened by Stephen Hawkins the father of modern physics. This was a time that mathematical descriptive schemes were adopted for such fields, such as mechanics and astronomy which could actually model universally valid characterizations of motion
Galileo Sun Centred model
From the late 17th into the early 18th century a famous Cambridge university physicist, Isaac Newton published the iconic Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which described the motion with beautiful mathematical proofs. Later in the 18th century when Newtons work was applied to rotational mechanics it became known as 'classical physics.
Moving into the later 18th and early 19th Century we reach an era where experimental physics took a front foot looking at prisms, electricity and f rational mechanics began to be applied to experimental phenomena. As we move further into the 19th century branches of physics including
Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and electromagnetic theory were developed,it was a change of rapid developments and challenges on classical ideas, mathematical analysis of many phenomenon were applied the most famous of which the introduction of a new concept of the 'field' and the publication of Maxwell’s 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
From here we move into modern physics and famous scientists which most of the world have heard of including Einstein who is credited with the special and general theories of relativity which fixed the anomalies in Newtons classical physics models. Also the branches of quantum physics have been and continue to be developed.
On Floating Bodies
Book of Optics
1543 On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres
632 Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
1905 On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
What is Quantum Physics
What is Physics today?
At the present time the main areas of development are quantum physics which is the physics of the very small, you can read about quantum physics in my series of hubs on the subject. Currently we are looking at string theory, M-brane theory many of which only work if we are in a universe of 10 or 11 dimensions.
There is also a very active area in GUT (grand unified theory) which is trying to bring together the theories of quantum mechanics and relativity this is a very hotly anticipated development as it will potentially give us a more complete understanding of nature and the universe.
Physics is a fascinating subject and one which I encourage you to read up on. Often the reality is a lot stranger than you can imagine. Can you imagine a cat which is both dead and alive, you being able to put your hand straight through a table and speeds which make the Bugatti veyron look like a snail. Below are some links where you can find out much more about the wonderful world of physics.
- physics.org | Home
Your guide to what is physics on the web. physics.org is the place to be if you have a burning physics question, or if you just want to browse articles and interactive features about physics
- Physics-online.com for A-level, AS-level and GCSE Physics | Physics-online.com
Physics-online.com is a unique new online service that which provides a searchable library of 1500 great interactive resources for teaching physics.
- physicsworld.com homepage
physicsworld.com - news, views and information for the global physics community from Institute of Physics Publishing