ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Second council held at Vaishali a hundred years after the death of Lord Buddha

Updated on March 12, 2016

Description Sarnath-Varanasi


Months in India- Sarnath


Lord Buddha's first sermon at Sarnath

The Buddha's first sermon at Sarnath is the nucleus of his religious philosophy. His teachings were simple and were explained in the language of the people i.e., Prakriti and not in Sanskrit, the sacred language of the brahmans. His main teachings were four noble truths and the eight – fold path.

Four noble truths are 1. the world is full of suffering, 2. suffering is caused by human desires, 3. the renunciation of desires is the path of salvation, 4. salvation can be achieved by following the eight – fold path.

The `eight – fold path' consists of – a) right faith, b) right resolution, c) right speech, d) right action, e) right means of livelihood, of) right exertion, g) right thought and, h) right concentration.

This path was also described as the `Middle Path'. The Buddha advised that one should neither indulge in material comforts and sensuous pleasure, nor should one practice austere penance like starvation, etc. Both extremes should be avoided.

Nirvana a the goal - By following the Buddha's Middle path one can attain nirvana or salvation, which means a tranquil state of mind which all cravings become completely extinct. Such a state of mind secures release from the chain of births and deaths.

Karama – Like Brahmanism and Jainism, Buddhism also recognized the law of Karma which declares that a man's condition in the present life is determined by the consequences of his actions in his past existence. No person can escape the consequences of his actions.

Non – violence – Like Mahavir, the Buddha also laid emphasis on ahimsa. He attached utmost importance to the sanctity of life in all its forms and opposed the sacrifice of animals in Vedic rituals.

No faith in the caste system – The Buddha had no faith in the caste system. He said laid emphasis on the basic equality between man and man. Entry to the Buddhist sangha was open to members of all castes. However, like the jains, the Buddha also did not initiate any program to abolish caste system in society.

Atheism – The Buddha did not believe in a Creator god, although he recognized the existence of Vedic and other gods as well as ghosts and spirits. According to him, the world has no beginning and is in a state of constant change. There is nothing permanent in the world, and all beings, including men and gods, are born and die according to their past actions. It is this law of Karma and its effect that governs the world process. Buddha called this universal causal law dharma.

No faith in sacrifices and rituals – The Buddha had no faith in the performance of Yajnas or sacrifices. He described the practice of rituals like the yajnas as of little consequence.

Emphasis on morality – The Buddha laid stress on morality. He also laid down a code of conduct for his followers. He advised them to lead a moral and disciplined life. They were asked not to tell lies, not to steal or covet others property, not to commit violence, not to use intoxicants and not to indulge in corrupt practises.

The place of Third Buddhist Council


... near Rajgir, Bihar, India - location of the first Buddhist Council


Buddhist councils

Four councils (Sangit) of learned monks are known to have been held in the early of Buddhism, and they are events of great historical importance. The first Council of five hundred senior Buddhist monks was held at Rajgriha almost immediately after the passing away of the Buddha. The purpose of the Council was to make a collection of Buddha's teachings, and this was done with the help of Upali and Anand, two of his favourite disciples. The collected teachings, with some later additions, ultimately came to be known as the Tripitaka or the three baskets, namely the Vinaya pitaka, the Sutta pitaka and the Abhidhamma pitaka, dealing respectively with -

1) the rules of conduct for the monks

2) the religious doctrine

3) the Buddhist philosophical ideas

The third or the A abhidhamma pitaka contains mostly the thoughts of later Buddhist scholars.

The Second Council was held at Vaishali a hundred years after the death of the Buddha to resolve disputes between eastern and western monks regarding rules of conduct. The dispute could not be resolved and the monks split into two camps which came to be known as Theravadins (followers of old monks) and the Mahasanghikas (members of the bigger Sangha).

The Thirds Council was held at Pataliputra during Ashoka's reign. An authentic version of the Tripitaka was prepared and those monks who did not accept were thrown out of the Sangha. The unity of the Sangha was thus restored for some time.

The Fourth Buddhist Council was held at Kudalavana in Kashmir during the reign of Kanishka. By this time, the earlier division of the Sangah into Theravadins and Mahasanghikas had been overtaken by a later division into Hinayana and Mahayana. It is not known for certain when this split occurred, but by Kanishka's time the two sects had became well established. The fourth council was a council mainly of the Sarvastivadin, a sub – sect of the Theravadins, but the Mahayana monks were also present at the Council.

Lord Buddha and the 500 Arahants Statues showing them walking behind



    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)