Sinking of The Lusitania
Three Events that Changed the War
Want to know what the other two events were in early 1915?
Have a look at this Hub on the Battle of Ypres.
One of three significant events that took place in the first two months of 1915 was the launch by Germany of its U-boat campaign. On February 4th, 1915 the Commander of the German Fleet issued a declaration that stated that the waters off of Britain and Ireland were deemed to be war zones effective February 18th.
All vessels in those waters were now in peril.
Of course, U-boats had been active since the very beginning of WW1. At the dawn of WW1 in August 1914, 10 U-boats set out from their base in the North Sea to attack ships of the Royal Navy. From that date forward, these submarines (the ‘U’ in U-boat stands for untersee or undersea) were very active, particularly in both the North Sea and the Mediterranean.
The first loss of a merchant ship to a U-boat occurred on October 20th, 1914 when U-boat U-17 intercepted the merchant ship Glitra bound from Scotland to Norway. Under what were known as the ‘prize rules’ of naval law, merchant ships could be boarded, their crew and passengers removed to a place of safety (not necessarily lifeboats, depending on the weather and sea conditions), and the ships could be scuttled. This is what happened to the Glitra. Her crew was placed in lifeboats, and the ship's valves were opened, allowing seawater to flood the ship and send her to the bottom.
U-9 from WW1 era
Naval Blockades in WW1
Britain, with her superior naval forces, had established a blockade of Germany when war was declared in August 1914. They took this a step further in November of that year when they declared that the North Sea was a war zone. This meant that any merchant ships entering the North Sea carrying goods – including food – destined for Germany were forced to dock in Britain and have any restricted cargo removed before resuming their journeys. The restriction on food supplies was seen as Draconian; even the US thought the restriction on foodstuffs was taking things too far. The Germans saw it as a blatant attempt to starve them out.
Germany wanted to get even.
So, on February 4th, 1915 German Commander von Pohl declared that from February 18th forward, the English Channel and the waters off England and Ireland were war zones. The plan called for a blockade of England enforced by German U-boats. The U-boats were virtually undetectable when submerged, meaning that they were a very effective weapon.
Withdrawing Room of the Lusitania's First Class Dining Room
Launched in 1906, the Lusitania was a luxury British passenger liner that was part of the Cunard Line. The Lusitania and her sister ship Mauretania were built for comfort and speed. They sported elevators and electric lighting, and were both spacious and comfortable. The first class dining room on the Lusitania spanned two decks, and featured a massive frescoed dome decorated in a classical style. Grand mahogany paneled public rooms with silk curtains and stained glass windows were common throughout.
When she departed New York on May 1st, 1915 bound for Liverpool, no one could have imagined what was to come. The German embassy in the US had actually taken the unusual step of publishing a notice in the newspaper, suggesting that travelers sailing in the war zone were doing so at their own risk. Was Germany signalling their intent to attack the Lusitania?
On May 7th at 2:10pm as she sailed about 11 miles off the southern coast of Ireland at the Old Head of Kinsale, the Lusitania was struck on her starboard side by a torpedo launched by the U-boat U-20. A second explosion from within the ship caused her to list severely to the starboard side. SOS signals were sent out continuously and were acknowledged, and the crew scrambled to get life boats into the water and evacuate the passengers. But she was going down quickly, and the severe list made launching the port-side boats almost impossible. Getting into the starboard boats was also extremely difficult due to the severe list, and many boats capsized. Of the 48 life boats on board, only six were successfully launched.
Eighteen minutes after the torpedo hit, the bow of the ship slipped beneath the waves, causing the stern to rise into the air. Then she was gone.
Sinking of the Lusitania: Terror at Sea
Of the 1,962 passengers and crew aboard the Lusitania, 1,192 lost their lives that spring afternoon, most of those due to drowning or hyperthermia.
The Germans had broken international naval laws by firing on a passenger ship without warning. The outcry over the incident was heard around the world. How could they blatantly attack an unarmed passenger liner? Britain urged the US to declare war on Germany because 128 Americans lost their lives that day, but President Woodrow Wilson refused to act. Britain, for its part, put its propaganda machine into full swing, and even circulated a story that German school children had been given a day off to celebrate the sinking of the Lusitania.
Though President Wilson had refused to declare war against Germany in 1915, the sinking of the Lusitania had a definite impact on public opinion in the US. Coupled with later diplomatic and shipping incidents, the sinking of the Lusitania helped to tip US public opinion against Germany and the US ultimately joined the war in 1917.
Who was right?
Germany claimed the ship was a ship of war. England claimed she was a passenger liner.
Controversy follows the sinking of The Lusitania
On May 8th, 1915 Germany declared that they had a right to sink the Lusitania because she was carrying munitions and was formally listed as a merchant cruiser, making her a warship despite the passengers on board. They were right on at least one count; the Lusitania was listed as an 'auxiliary' warship, and she had been used to transport arms for years. Cunard denied that the Lusitania was carrying munitions at the time of the sinking, but the day after the disaster, the New York Times newspaper carried a story about the ship's manifest that listed small-arms shells and cartridges as part of her official cargo.
Fast forward to 1982, and a surprising revelation from Britain’s Department of Defence. The Guardian newspaper carried an article that described Foreign Office files that had been released by the National Archives, confirming that there was a large amount of ammunition on the ship when she went down.
Could this be what caused the explosion right after torpedo hit, or was it coal dust in the hold as was claimed?
U-20 Destroyed November 1916
© 2015 Kaili Bisson