- Education and Science
Example of Social Science Research Proposal
Many people may NOT have any clue about social science research including some marketing researchers may NOT have any opportunity to conduct social science research in their career path before. This hub will help not only researchers but the people who are interesting in this field understanding further as a guidance in this particular issue.
In general, social science research, a scientific research, applies similar research methodologies the same as other types of research such as marketing research which is inherent with both quantitative approach and qualitative approach, clinical research which is emphasized on specific areas such as pharmaceutical, chemical, health care research, and so on. As a consequence, this hub will represents the brief introductory and guides the audience how to write the proposal for highlighted topic "Example of Social Science Research Proposal" which associates to other hubs written earlier about social science study.
My crucial recommendation in writing attractive social science research proposal is make it more literary proposal based on research theory and hypothesis.
And one more thing a good researchers should do prior to writing and conducting specific study is a secondary research on a topic study such as brand name, products and its lines, customers, sales, and so on in order to make a research proposal more attractive and interesting in impressing customers.
In this hub I will demonstrate an example of social science research proposal written as a main purpose for scholar competitive submission. Thus, there will be some important elements illustrate on the following hubs as a guidance for my beloved and valued audiences. I hope this research example will assists also inspires other researchers, college students, and readers enhance their knowledge in research field.
RESEARCH PROPOSAL COMPONENTS
The research proposal consists of several elements as following:-
COMPONENTS IN A SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Self - Experience
1. Title or Research Topic
2. Aims and Objectives of the study
2. Aims and Objectives
3. Introduction to the research topic
3. Introduction or Overview / Business Overview
4. Literature Review
4. Literature Review / Research Modeling / Business Modeling
5. Research Design
5. Research Design and Methodology
5.1. Research Methodologies
5.1. Research Methodologies
5.2. Advantages and Limitations
5.2. Sampling and Sample Composition
5.3. Data Collection
5.3. Data Collection / Example of a series of questionnaires
6. Ethical Considerations
5.4. Advantages and Limitations
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
6. Example of Analysis, Conclusions, and Recommendations
8. Time Scales / Project Plan
7. Timeline / Project Plan (according to Research Methods)
9. Pilot or Feasibility Study
8. Pilot or Feasibility Study (if require)
9. Deliverable / Documented Research e.g. reports, transcripts, tables, etc.
Source: Doing Your Social Science Dissertation, Judith Burnett,
10. Budget and Cost Break Down
SAGE Study Skills
11. Biography and Team
12. Appendix / Referendum (if require)
STOP HUMAN TRAFFICKING
EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN PRACTICE
The convenient of migration of the population from one to another countries in the globalize era leading to the complexity of the migration of population including human trafficking. The changing means in transportation humans from one country to another for the underlying employment in the nighttime businesses such as nightclubs, bars, discos, cocktail lounges, and so on is perceived as a human trafficking relates issue. This kind of problem becomes an international issue and aware by several international non-government organizations such as United Nation (U.N), and other Children and Women Associations.
According to the Fellowship Programme sponsored by........(states sponsor's name)... opens the opportunity for the potential candidates propose the research topic on the woman and children. The human trafficking problems emphasize on the underlying employment and businesses subject to interest areas to be studied.
The research methodologies apply to obtain insightful data and information on this topic is social science research. To gain the most accurate and free from distortion the qualitative approaches namely ethnography and in-depth will be applied to collect the insightful information in this sensitive subjects.
INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH TOPIC
Thailand is a country perceived as one of the most critical prostitution problems and as a hub of human trafficking in Southeast Asia leading to a crime and violence. This problem becomes an international and more complicated nowadays according to the globalization paradox and cultural exchanges which easily connecting and interacting to the people worldwide. The cheaper and more convenient transportation is a key factor of the population movement from one country to foreign countries. The globalization seems to be a persuasive migration of Thais, especially, females and males in some regions of Thailand where are highly perceived involving into the underline businesses. As a result of the globalize era leading to the more convenient human trafficking to foreign countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, German, Bahrain, and so on.
Although, many non-profit organizations, especially, woman and children organizations, aware of that prostitution is a major problems and difficult to find the right solutions to cope with it. Therefore, this social research study will help many organizations including governments to figure out what are core problems, drivers, motivations, and other conditions lure and stimulate those under privilege males and females entrench into the underlying including the trafficking businesses. This study will identify the factors of migration which showed in UNESCO's statistical data of regular migrants annually: 1,050,459 people (56.8% female) are Thai females move to foreign countries.
Besides, this study will be conducted not only the target Thai migrants those employ by the underlying businesses such as night clubs, disco clubs, pubs, lounges and so on but the business owners, managers and traffickers are targeted to participate to this social science research. This study will covers three (3) key dimensions are migrants or workers, underlying businesses’ entrepreneur, and social impacts.
It is obviously seen that Asia and the Pacific region is the main continent having of the human trafficking problems higher than other continents in the rest of the world as showed in the table I that there were 1,400,000 people or 56% trafficked to other countries. There are 161 countries reported to be affected by human trafficking by being sources, transit, and destination. The majority of victims are trafficked in the labor force aged between 18 – 24 years of age, whom 56% are women and girls. Most of the victims are experienced physical and sexual violence (95%).
As the statistical data identify the severe of this problems but it seems careless or ignored by the governments. What/why several governments that human trafficking occurred causing the ignorance or careless of this problems? There are plenty accuses come up from them. Or it is maybe because of the huge amount of incomes and profits in this kind of the underlying businesses itself (shown in Figure II). This research will help figures out all important factors affect all elements associated to the human trafficking and the underlying employment.
Source: United Nation (UN) and UNESCO
According to the social science research purposes, the two qualitative approaches called ethnography and in-depth interview are accounted to this research paradigm. In theory, the breadth of social science research coherent with both quantitative and qualitative, but in this study topic will adopts non-experimental studies to test for causal relationships of the particular factors called “quasi-experimental”technique (Campbell and Standley (1963), Campbell (1962), and Cook and Campbell (1979)) design to emphasize that they offer less rigorous tests than experimental design. The quasi-experimental technique appropriates to this research topic is qualitative approaches namely ethnographic and in-depth interview approach.
The main reasons why this approach apply this research topic is because it emphasize understanding of social phenomena though direct observation, communication with both targeted individuals and groups, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality. To comprehend the dynamic Thai migrants, ethnographical approach will be used to evaluate the Thai labor forces along with indirectly observed the characteristics and behaviors of the specific areas in the underlying business management.
The second main approach is an in-depth interview, or called one-to-one interview, designed to gather the rich information from two (2) main groups; labor forces and the underlying business. This method will use the normative questionnaire to obtain consistent and accurate data.
These research methodologies will incorporate with two (2) key dimensions; rational and emotive response which interfere in analyze conformable contents of each groups in association with the concept of contemporary social science research which is rigorous, innovative, creative empirical research.
In general, there are two major research techniques are used conducting in the general business research: (1) Quantitative techniques are those statistical and operation research, or programming technique, techniques which help in the decision making process especially concerning business and industry. These techniques involve the introduction of the elements of quantities i.e. they involve the use of numbers, symbols and other mathematical expressions. (2) Qualitative approach is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also inmarket research and further contexts.Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding ofhuman behavior and thereasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates thewhyandhowofdecision making, not justwhat,where,when. Hence, smaller but focusedsamples are more often needed than largesamples.
In the conventional view, qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only propositions (informed assertions).Quantitative methods can then be used to seek empirical support for such research hypotheses. This view has been disputed by Oxford University professorBent Flyvbjerg, who argues that qualitative methods andcase study research may be used both for hypotheses-testing and for generalizing beyond the particular cases studied.
In order to accomplish the research objectives, there are two approaches taking into accounts in this research topic are ethnographic method is the main approach in studying labor forces and victims. And in-depth interview method is used to conduct the human trafficking relates businesses including selected labor forces.
Ethnographical approach is a branch of social science research employed as a key methodology in studying the labor forces and victims in underlying businesses. This research protocol provides more accuracy of the empirical observation according to the scientific model. The selected representative group of respondents will be tapping, VDO recording, then recording in the proper templates such as in excel sheet or word format.
This methodology allows researcher or social scientist closely observe their behaviors, characteristics, attitudes, cross-culture adaption, routine activities, working life and other sensitive issues during fieldwork period.
In the data gathering process, the observers will disguise themselves as a labor and behave as a general staff in order to interact with the target group naturally without any bias. So that the observers will rigorously follow the observed patterns and use the proper stimuli(s) to gain the most accurate information which response to key stated attributes.
In-depth interview or it is called “a one-to-one interview” will be applied both target groups, human trafficking relates (underlying) businesses and labor forces, of this study to obtaining insightful and validated data and information in the subjective areas. Depth interview is suitable for the more diverse and diffuse topics, so this method is appropriated to obtain sufficient data from individuals in the selected interest groups.
Not only face-to-face interview according to the normative discussion guide, the projective techniques such as the use of pictures, self-completion, psychological questions, and so on will be applied to the sensitive areas in the questionnaire instead of the honest questions which causing uncomfortable feeling to answer.
LIMITATIONS OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
Although in the theory determine the explore research, both ethnography and in-depth interview approach, greatest strengths is the validity of the data obtained from individuals which sufficient detail for the results to be taken as true, correct, complete and believable reports of their views and experiences. But in execution social science research by applying ‘quasi-experimental’ method contains several limitations as follows:
- It does not provide a complete account or explanation and may includes self-justification reports if the researcher or observer interprets the communication incorrectly, bias judgment, social desirable judgment, and so on.
- The findings, reports or even the research techniques can be rejected or denied by others because it has small number of samples (cannot taken as representative).
- A distortion of measurement resulting from the cognitive behavior or actions of the witnessing observer or researcher is called observer/researcher bias.
- Accuracy may suffer if the observer or researcher does not record every detail that describes the persons, objects, and events in a given situation.
- The pace of events, the observer’s and researcher’s memory and writing speed and other factors will limit the amount of detail that can be recorded.
- In some subjective areas may influence the interplay between interviewer, observer, and researcher and respondent such as the subject’s age or sex.
- The observer and researcher may obtain inaccuracy behavior, characteristics, attitude if the respondents are asked for permission conducting the survey.
- The ethical issues in the hidden observation of humans can raise the respondent’s right privacy including research ethical dilemma.
Ethnography: Fieldwork will be conducting at the selected site(s) around 1.5 months in order to recruit the interest respondents for the in-depth interview. The aggregate timeline for this research topic is no longer than 5 months. And the in-depth interview of the labor forces will starts at the final week of the observation period which is probably not reveal the observation at the sampling unit.
The human trafficking relates business is conducted by only in-depth interview method, so the fieldwork can be kicking off at the second week of the project start month. Please see the schedule tables below for further detail.
EXAMPLE OF TIMELINE
The sponsors of the fellowship program me will receive both soft and hard copies of the finding altogether with the materials, evidences, and proof occurring during the study. And the presentation will demonstrate at the end of the final month scheduled in the timeline. The reports, transcripts and presentations will illustrate in English. The deliverables consist of the following:
(i) The transcripts and diaries (will be submitted if required)
(ii) MP3 and Video recorders
(iii) Evidences during study period such as photos, receipts and others.
(iv) Documented submission : soft and hard copies of the reports in English
(v) Presentation in English
The budget for the combination of ‘quasi-experimental’ techniques with five months timeline is including the following items:
- Transportation costs
- Recruitment fieldwork team
- Respondent’s fee
- Accommodation costs
- Professional fee