ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Speaking Lessons for ESL and EFL Students: How to Use Graphs and Charts

Updated on July 27, 2012
Cute, yes - but she looks a little nervous. No need to be if you can master these simple tricks!
Cute, yes - but she looks a little nervous. No need to be if you can master these simple tricks! | Source

Using Charts and Graphs as Speaking Prompts for Intermediate and Advanced Learners

Many people learning English are doing so for the international business opportunities it provides, making the ability to speak coherently and articulately about information presented in charts and graphs a particularly useful exercise. However, even students at the undergraduate or high school level will find speaking exercises organized around the interpretation of information useful: it is great practice for class presentations, speaking exams, and even flexes those critical thinking skills that are so crucial to the coherent organization of an argument or academic paper.

This article will outline a few key points in chart or graph interpretation, as well as the best (most thorough) way to approach the information in such a way as to present a compelling story for investors, teachers, peers or parents - even if you've never seen the information before.

What Information is Being Conveyed, and How?

So of course you'll first want to examine any textual clues presented in the graph.

Things to look for:

  • Is the information presented as a percentage or as a raw number/unit? I.e. does the graph say that in a certain year cars produced 25% of the city's pollution, or 25 tonnes of pollution? The answer to this will determine the best method to compare different parts of the graph. If the answer is percentages, then it is easier to talk about how much of the total is accounted for in any specific section, compared (for example) to other sources of pollution. However, unless the graph specifies how many tonnes (or whatever) equals 100%, then you will have a harder time comparing across time. For example, perhaps the graph shows that in 1990, cars produced 25% of the total pollution in the city and in 2010, they produced 15% of the total pollution. There is a 20 year difference here, and you will have to make some hypotheses about whether the total amount of pollution went up or down during that period. It is possible that cars actually produced MORE pollution in 2010, but that factories or airplanes ALSO caused much much more pollution, and the total amount of pollution sky-rocketed!
  • Is there a specified time frame? If so, what do you know about general trends during that period? Were there a lot of new environmental regulations implemented? Did people start to travel more? Was there more consumer education? Did everyone start to install air conditioning in their private homes? There are endless questions that can be asked about almost any kind of graph, and you will want to practice quickly brainstorming the most relevant.
  • If there is no specified time-frame, you can still ask yourself questions about what trends are or were likely to affect the data. Why would new parents be more likely to buy sunblock than baby clothes in 2000? Maybe there were a lot of articles about how damaging the sun is for sensitive baby skin. Or maybe baby clothes were expensive that year and most parents made due with hand-me-down clothes or made their own.

What Stories Can You Tell About A Bunch of Bars or a Pie Chart?

Lots! Tons! Well, several, anyway...

If you have a graph which compares three things at two different points in time (for example, pollution caused by cars, factories, and private homes in 1990 and 2010), then you have at least FIVE stories to tell.

  1. The change (if any) in pollution caused by cars between 1990 and 2010.
  2. The change (if any) in pollution caused by factories between 1990 and 2010.
  3. The change (if any) in pollution caused by private homes between 1990 and 2010.
  4. The "broad picture" for 1990;
  5. The "broad picture" for 2010.
  6. The relationship between 1990s data and 2010s data, and hypothetical reasons for it. Here you can also discuss the presentation or form of the data (percentage or raw numbers/units) and how that affects our interpretation of the information.
  7. And finally, your own opinion about how and why you think the data will change (or not) in the future.

Okay! Here's a tricky graph for practice with lots and lots of stories to tell. It doesn't say, so let's assume that the measurement on the left side is Number of Complaints (so not percentages). What do you think caused those spikes?
Okay! Here's a tricky graph for practice with lots and lots of stories to tell. It doesn't say, so let's assume that the measurement on the left side is Number of Complaints (so not percentages). What do you think caused those spikes? | Source

In the interest of addressing specific concerns, what do you (or your students) have the most difficulty with?

See results

And With That:

You should be well prepared to meet any speaking exam, impromptu presentation, or bizarre family dinner with grace and aplomb. Congratulations, now go rock that!

Just remember that comfortable, fluid speakers vary their sentences , make eye contact with the people they're talking to, and make the information tell a story that anyone can understand. And as with all things, practice makes perfect - or near enough to it that no one will know.

If you liked this, check out my overview of how to master the tenses with tense-specific writing prompts.

Please vote in the poll and let me know what other kinds of lessons or material you folks would be interested in.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)