ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Speech and Language Disorder: a common learning disability.

Updated on July 4, 2016
Dean Traylor profile image

Dean Traylor is a freelance writer and teacher. He wrote for IHPVA magazines and raced these vehicles with his father (who builds them).

from the Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences, University of Buffalo, SUNY.
from the Department of Communicative Disorders and Sciences, University of Buffalo, SUNY. | Source

Speech and language disorders are possibly the most common forms of learning disabilities found among school-age children. The conditions associated with it are usually minor and can be treated with the help of a speech therapist, a special education teacher, or a reading specialist.

These conditions may not impact the students’ ability as much as other conditions. Still, they can cause delays in areas of language learning such as oral comprehensions, phonemic awareness, and articulation. Also, stuttering or stammering can be a by-product.

Although speech and language disorders are usually clumped together under one designation – when written into a student's individual education plan (IEP) – they affect the students in different ways.

Source

Speech Disorder

A speech disorder is when students have trouble producing speech sounds correctly or fluently or there are problems with their voice (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2012). According to ASLHA’s website, an example of these conditions can be described as:

difficulties pronouncing sounds or phonemes,

• articulation disorders, and

• stuttering.

Another website from an AHSA certified speech-language pathologist, Katie Pedersen (M.Ed CCC-SLP), lists several form of speech disorders. Here are the following disorders listed from her site, Let's Grow Speech (letsgrowspeech.com). They are:

• Articulation disorders: when speech sounds are made incorrectly. For example one may use /w/ for /r/ when pronouncing a word.

• Phonological disorders contain “consistent patterns of sound errors.” The example she gave was replacing sounds usually made in the back of the mouth (/k/ and /g/) with sounds made in the front (/t/ and /d/).

• Stuttering: A disorder affecting speech fluency which results in the repetition or prolongation of sounds or words, making speech sound bumpy or tense (Pederson, 2014).

• Voice disorders: vocal cords are either damaged or not working properly.

• Apraxia of speech: problem with speech associated with possible brain damage. According to Pederson this results in trouble sequencing the sounds or syllables of speech.

• Dysarthria: the muscles associated with the creation of speech are weak. This can be caused by stroke or other forms of brain injury. The effect is the individual’s inability to speak clearly.

Language Disorder

Language disorder deals with the students comprehend oral communications from others. ASLHA defines language disorders as “a person having trouble understanding others or having difficulty sharing thoughts, ideas or feelings.”

Also, language disorders are often divided into two parts. They are:

Receptive Language Disorder: having trouble understanding others, and

Expressive Language: the inability to communicate thoughts or feelings to others.


speech therapy in session: Originally posted for http://csd.wvu.edu/r/images/slideshow/136242 -- West Virginia University website
speech therapy in session: Originally posted for http://csd.wvu.edu/r/images/slideshow/136242 -- West Virginia University website

Possible Causes

These conditions do not have one definitive cause. There are several. In many cases, slight deformities or slow physical development in the student’s mouth (such as the tongue or upper palette) have been responsible for childhood speech and language disorders.

There is evidence that damage to the brain – in particular the part that processes speech and language – is a culprit. The damage may have been a result of an accident or by genetics.

The causes are not limited to genetics or biology. Accidents or diseases, in particular, those affecting the oral or neurological regions have been known to be factors. One such factor is a stroke which has caused language disorders in adults.

Using Accommodations

Often, speech and language disorders may require a minimum amount of accommodations in the classroom. In fact, those with speech disorders will either be pulled out of class for an hour each day or each week (depending on the severity of the case) or have speech therapy services in the classroom (this is known as a “pull-in” system and is practiced in various school districts throughout the United States).

Many students with these conditions will not require speech therapy services after middle school. A small number of students will continue this service through their high school years. Part of the reason is that the students develop speech and language skills early.

Those designated with the speech and language disorder label will most likely be exited from special education services by the time they finish their formal education, unless there are other learning disabilities affecting their ability to perform academically with their peers.

These conditions may hinder academic growth and may place a student behind his or her peers. However, it is, in most cases, mild and treatable.

More on Speech and Language Disorders

© 2014 Dean Traylor

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Dean Traylor profile imageAUTHOR

      Dean Traylor 

      4 years ago from Southern California

      Actually, it can be caused by several factors. One thing I remember from my studies is that some it is caused by deformities or delayed development within the mouth (palate, tongue, top of throat) and/or brain (processing issues). Environmental factors as you mention can be a possibility; however, it's not always the cause. I have an adopted son who had delays do to the negligence of his mother. Once he was placed in foster care and eventually with us, his speech not only improved, but surpassed his age range.

    • Arco Hess Designs profile image

      Arco Hess 

      4 years ago from Kansas City, Kansas

      I once read that many language delays are due to lack of communication between child and adult. Is there any truth to this?

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)