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Helping ESL and EFL Students Ask Information Questions
Importance of Information Questions
Most EFL and ESL students struggle asking questions in class. They have an especially hard time asking the open-ended information questions. If teachers want students to make progress in improving their English language skills, it is necessary to give them the needed tools for asking questions, This hub examines the nature of of information question words, and how teachers can better guide their students in asking more meaningful questions while searching for knowledge.
How to Ask Questions
What Are Information Question Words And What is Their Importance?
We all use information question words in our daily lives to find out extensive information about people, places, and things. If we did not ask these questions, we would only be confirming or denying what we think we know in close-ended yes or no questions like "Do you live in China?" and "Did you go to school yesterday?" In finding out more about persons, places, and things, we have to ask information questions which begin with the words, who, what, when, where, how, why, which, and whose.
Teaching ESL Students How to Ask Information Questions
What is the best way to teach ESL students how to ask information questions?
How to Teach EFL and ESL Students to Ask Information Questions
1. Explain The Meaning And Function of Question Words
The first step in teaching EFL and ESL students how to ask information question words is to explain the meaning and function of question words. I would suggest using word associations to explain the meanings of questions words. For example, in introducing the meaning of "what," I would associate this word with things like car and house, and also with names like Mary and Tom. I would also associate "what" with actions like writing and sleeping.
The function of question words will also help students understand their meanings. Let's consider the question word, "whose." After associating "whose" with words like his, her, your, and yours, I would point out that "whose" and its associations all function as pronouns in sentences.
2, Use Cloze Exercises to Assess Students Understanding of Question Words
I would do this by providing an underlined answer, and then have the student select the correct question word for a question. For instance, the student would be given a sentence like:
_________ did you go yesterday? I went to the mall.
Based on an understanding that "to the mall" is a place, the student would choose the word "where" to put in the blank. As another example, this sentence would be presented:
_________ does he go to school? He goes by bus.
Knowing that "by bus" is a mode or how one travels, the understanding student would choose the question word "how" to put into the blank.
3. Review The Affirmative of Basic Verb Tenses
Before students can ask comprehensible information sentences, they must know how to produce affirmative sentences using basic verb tenses. For example, using the present simple, past simple, present continuous, and future tenses, students should be able to generate sentences like:
She goes to school every day, She went to school yesterday,
She is going to school now, She will go to school next month.
4. Review Structure of Asking Yes or No Questions in All Tenses
After students can comfortably make affirmative sentences in all basic verb tenses, the teacher should move next to showing the students how to change these sentences into yes or no questions. The use and placement of auxiliary verbs in questions must be explained and shown. For example, from the affirmative sentences in item 3, the teacher would generate sentences such as:
Does she go to school every day? Did she go to school yesterday?
Is she going to school now? Will she go to school next week?
Here, the teacher points out the different auxiliaries for the present and past tenses, and he also notes that the infinitive of the verb with the exception of the present continuous is used in question formation.
5. Make Information Questions by Adding Question Words in Front of Yes and No Questions
The final step in most situations is adding the question word at the beginning of the yes or no question. For the yes or no question, "Does he eat dinner?", we can make the following information questions according to what a person wants to know:
When does he eat dinner? Where does he eat dinner?
Why does he eat dinner? How does he eat dinner?
What does he eat (for) dinner? Which does he eat (for) dinner - fish or meat?
Who eats dinner? Whose (food) does he eat for dinner?
Assessing Students Proficiency in Making Information Questions from Sentences
In assessing students' proficiency in making information questions, I suggest creating an exercise in which students have to make questions from statements. Part of an exercise might look like this:
1. _________________________? She went to school at 7:00 A.M.
2. _________________________? They go to the market by taxi.
If nothing is underlined in the statements, correct answers for number one could be: Where did she go at 7:00 A.M.?; When or what time did she go to school?; or Who went to school? Possible answers for number two are: How do they go to school?; Where do they go by taxi?; or Who goes to school by taxi?
Asking questions will always be one of the hardest things for students to do. If the teacher follows the steps in this hub in asking questions, he or she will go a long way in helping EFL and ESL students develp their English skills. With all things, only practice will make perfect.
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© 2012 Paul Richard Kuehn