ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

THE GROWTH OF JOURNALISM

Updated on July 13, 2011

THE GROWTH OF JOURNALISM

The Latin periodical from Cologne Mercurius Gallobelgicus published in 1592 was the first journal to be published in the world on a semi-annual basis. This was followed by the English journal Oxford Gazette which was published on a regular basis.

In 1690 the first newspaper in the US Publick Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick was published, but it was soon suppressed as it did not have a license which was mandatory in Massachusetts. Boston news letter which commenced in 1704 had a longer existence and published news until 1776, but faded out of the scene probably due to late publishing of news and absence of quality. The first major colonial newspaper was new England courant, which was started in 1721 by James Franklin, elder brother of Benjamin Franklin. By the time American Revolution took place there was nearly 89 newspapers. As most of them opposed the stamp act, they were anti-royalist in outlook.

Republican newspapers were partisan and devoid of objectivity or accountability. Even when the ownership shifted to private enterprise, their outlook was basically anti-establishment.

The first really modern newspaper was the New York Herald which was started in 1835 and New York Tribune in 1841 but it was in 1851, New York Times was started by Henry Raymond and George Jones. What made them stand out from the competition was balanced writing and high writing standards.

By the 20th century what started out as investigative journalism soon came to be derided as muckraking. Though to a large extent it was due to the sensationalism which crept into newspapers in the 19th century, the yeoman service done by Ida Tarbell, and Upton Sinclair introduced a strong social commitment in newspapers, particularly among the smaller ones. Mainstream newspapers like New York Times and Washington Post which depended largely on advertisers for revenue displayed a conservatism which has been criticized by people like Chomsky. In fact after the great depression, there was newspaper consolidation all over US. Smaller newspapers disappeared from the scene giving way to giant newspaper establishments which were big in every sense of the word, in size influence and profit. But by the 60s newspapers like I.F.Stones weekly, The Village Voice and The Nation found part of what came to be known as the alternative press. This was a welcome change as mainstream newspapers content were becoming more and more the voice of the vested interest.

The next major change was the emergence of the internet. Newspapers not only became online but changed the way events were reported. For the first time peoples participation in news reporting gave rise to blogs and a new genre called citizen journalism. This was facilitated largely due to technological marvels like digital cameras and convergence technology. Journalism is on the threshold of the next major leap in development. Though technological changes might change the face of journalism in the digital age; its spirit remains the same---the perennial quest to freely express and inform without fear or favor without compromising on truth.

Comments

Submit a Comment

No comments yet.

working

This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

Show Details
Necessary
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Features
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Marketing
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Statistics
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)