The Teacher Training In The XXI Century
"Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I learn"
Benjamín Franklin (1780)
When we talk about a professional we refer as stated (Popkewitz, 1985) cited by Marcelo (1989: 9) "a person with high preparation, competition and specialization that provides a public service. In addition, the designation provides professional privilege, authority and social recognition to the people who assume ".
Currently following a series of transformations undergone by the educational field, be a teacher well prepared these days involves not only have complete mastery of content, since the teaching work is one of the most enriching activities you can perform, because being trained profesionista tomorrow.
However, it is one of the most demanding in terms of the preparation of teachers or teacher, activities for teaching practice involves many factors from the domain of the themes, language, to personal image and how to write on the white board, the above associated with the current social context in which the teacher's role has evolved and it is not only a source of information but it is now a guide that should be able to discern and organize the wealth of information and knowledge from the characteristics of students; also with the emergence of new technologies and the generation gap it has been even more difficult this approach.
To better understand the role of the teacher, it is necessary to define what teaching practice, which for De Lella (1999) sees it as "the action the teacher develops in the classroom, especially regarding the process of teaching, and distinguished from global institutional practice and social practice of teaching ", ie not only the practitioner must be knowledgeable about their area of training, but should be distinguished by having knowledge and mastery of the entire teaching process from induction to the evaluation process. By imparting the knowledge of their area of training, care must be taken that the information and content must be organized, schematic and presented according to the different learning theories, which highlights the skills of selecting the right strategies as paradigms and approaches of learning, for example, cognitive, constructivist, competency or eclectic theory.
An important part of teaching activities is the analysis of teaching practice, as Zabala (2002) notes "the analysis of educational practice must be done through the events resulting from the student-teacher and student-student interaction." For this reason, it is important to evaluate the own performance as a teacher in the classroom, but in most cases is not given the necessary importance to this area.
Currently most teachers top level are professionals from each of the degrees that offer educational institutions, who because of their initial training lack the knowledge and skills to practice teaching this because it has a specialty in teaching, which complicates the process of teaching and learning.
At the level of higher education, mostly there is no pedagogical training for professionals in different areas, so that when a professional is decided by imitating models of teaching teachers were more significant for various reasons in the process of teaching learning by example: authoritarian, good-natured, flexible.
So when the professor faces the reality in the classroom it lacks experience in education at a higher level, as within their field of study. Therefore in their teaching practice and on the basis of success-error, as is changing their behavior in the teaching-learning process. And there is a reality that many professionals adopt teaching as a way of modus vivendi. Therefore, it should focus on teacher training in various areas such as educational planning, assessment of learning, the use of virtual tools, design of teaching materials, among others, that for the purpose of professionals conceive the educational process from each of its aspects.
One of the main processes that teaching should be carried out continuously is training, that is, to verify that their knowledge meet the needs of new generations. Therefore, psychology as a science that studies the behavior sees training as the means by which the teacher will acquire learning and new skills later with practice will become skills that will transmit to his students.
In recent years, it has displayed a lack of teacher training and updating professional practice is one of the factors that affects steadily in the educational backwardness. So it is necessary to assess whether the teacher is actually reaching the expected learning objectives. Speaking evaluation we know that it is a dynamic, continuous and systematic process focused on changing behaviors and yields, by which we verify the achievements gained in terms of the objectives.
Speaking evaluation if teachers reach learning objectives, we must ask ourselves is first if teachers do you really have the skills necessary for teaching practice ?, in this case, focusing the upper level.
Speaking of teaching skills we refer to the body of knowledge and strategies that enable teachers to successfully face the problems, conflicts and problems that arise every day, here it should be noted that should also consider other issues that do not arise every day but could arise in the group and that in some way either directly or indirectly have an influence in the classroom and in the processes of teaching and learning.
One of the concepts that are currently being handled and has brought a stir are teaching skills and new information technologies. All this has brought several authors speak to us about the desirable competencies of a teacher in the use of information and communication technologies.
In education Echeverria (1996), explains two types of competencies based on the proposal of UNESCO. Technical competence refers to knowledge, to have the knowledge to enable master, as an expert, content and tasks related to the work activity itself, which goes hand in hand with the methodological or better competition known as the knowhow, which aims to apply the knowledge to specific work situations using the appropriate procedures, solve problems independently and transfer situations acquired new situations.
It is clear that the skills are not innate human potential, but part of an ongoing construction of the learner, to achieve a specific task efficiently.
Echeverria (1996) in his work explains that competition is: "The productive capacity of an individual (teacher) that is defined and measured in terms of performance in a certain labor context (education), and not just knowledge, skills or skills in the abstract; ie, competition is the integration between knowledge, know-how, knowledge and know-living being. " Overall a teaching competence whatever, seeks to incorporate new knowledge and experience to the body of knowledge with which already has teacher and translates into strategies for teaching and learning.