- Education and Science
Tabu in: For existence
Tabu in: For existence
Language is a system or means of communication which is important for people in relationships daily. According Asmah Haji Omar, "the language used is a system of symbols that associates the purpose or object of the human mind to something concrete or something abstract, so that users can understand the language of a thing that was said was". Language is a dynamic element that is constantly changing according to the time or situation and current developments. Therefore, according to S. Nathesan, language is constantly analyzed and approached using a variety of approaches to the study. Among the approaches that can be used to study the language is meaningful approach. Meaning or semantics field is part of the science of linguistics that would not be perfect if there is no study of meaning. One area studied is the meaning of the elements contained in the language of taboo. The community is rich in tradition and Eastern culture to handle it long ago. Customs, manners, and cultures that became a tradition in this society is not only a role model but also encompasses the people as a rule together in everyday communication. Togetherness in the community is what causes the existence of certain regulations that is taboo to a hold by members of the public to customs, manners, and culture which upheld it awake. Tabu is a strategy that involves aspects of linguistic politeness that courtesy, customs, and manners valued in the community that can be complied with by any member of the public. Politeness that is taboo aspects include certain words in languages other than English that simply can not be spoken in certain situations.
Part of the study of meaning or semantics that were taboo in the language. Taboo words as expressed in the Fourth Edition Kamus Dewan means "something forbidden, taboo or prohibited or forbidden notorious". According Thesaurus English Linguistics, taboo is "a condition for avoiding the use of inappropriate language or prohibited". When linked with language, taboo is a condition that the limit or restriction to community members so that they do not use language or certain words with impunity. Although the language is something that is arbitrary, there are some things that can not be discussed openly and blatantly, especially in public. According to Teo Kok Seong, topics often considered taboo in the community such matters relating to sex, certain bodily functions, certain members of the body, the pregnancy and birth, and faeces. In addition, the community is also very sensitive to matters relating to customs and beliefs.
TABU WHY THERE?
Tabu in shape due to several factors. These factors include factors related to the background of the community itself. Among them are:
(A) Customs and Beliefs
The community has a tradition and cultural heritage are so high. Customs and traditions held by the community plays an important role in everyday life. These are the things that guide in their lives long ago. Asmah Haji Omar in Rails Strain Malay said that the Malays before converting to Hinduism and later Islam, believe in the spirit, both on living creatures, or even lifeless as trees, large timber, stone, and so on. The community considers these things have a spirit or soul that can affect them. Therefore, the treatment of objects shall be polite. For the community, this treatment is not polite and rude, either in the form of the act or the conversation will give harm to the person concerned. Therefore, all matters relating to the matter considered taboo by the community. Because there are certain restrictions set by the community in speaking about things that may be, the expressions considered taboo has been replaced with another term that is considered more polite and sweet to hear.
To keep your heart 'spirit' is in such objects, the community replace certain words that are considered taboo in other words a more subtle nature or hidden meaning. For example, the word grandfather or grandmother used when a person through certain places that he believes there is 'orderly' or ghost. The grandparents said referring to the 'gatekeepers' who believed in ghosts or stay in the place. Replacement of the word to indicate that the person who called respect for 'gatekeepers', and hope that they are not 'disturbed' and to harm him. Within the meaning of the word grandfather and normal conditions refers to "the father of the father or mother of someone." (Kamus Dewan Fourth Edition), while the grandmother said was meant "the old man to the mother or father. Generally, the word also represents a call to the father of the father or mother. Similarly, the grandmother said. Grandparents are positioned very priceless family members. This position makes one called the grandfather or grandmother is highly respected by his grandchildren as older people. That is why the word grandfather or grandmother used to refer ghost or 'gatekeepers' who believed it because 'they' must be respected just like a grandfather or grandmother.
In terms of customs, taboos elements also play a significant role in maintaining traditions revealed by previous heritage, especially in the context of social relationships. For example, when there is a death in the community, the dead should never be used to refer to the subject of death. On the other hand, the community is more comfortable calling died, or in other contexts passed away. Similarly, when referring to the person who died, said the bodies were also considered impolite called, but was replaced with a corpse. When viewed from the angle of meaning, the word is synonymous with death die, so also the word that is synonymous with the bodies of dead bodies. However, it is different when viewed from the point of customs and courtesy in the community. This phenomenon is said to be taboo because of the ban in a society that upholds the tradition.
(B) The Fear
In addition to supernatural elements, the community also believes in the power of the spirit of the wild animals. Animals that used to be terrified community is like tigers, elephants, crocodiles, wild boars, snakes and rats. These animals may be considered if the clash harm to people in the forest. Life before the community is very dependent on the forest as forests provide multiple sources of income. Therefore, they often go into the woods to find various resources such as rattan, honey, shoots, light, and so on. Therefore, as far as possible they do not want to clash with these animals because it may cause harm and injury. Malays also believe that if the names of animals such as tigers, elephants or wild pig called by the pronouncement of his real name, they will collide with these animals, and may irritate or harm him. In addition, the community also believe that if these animals were challenged, reprimanded or held in contempt by the harsh words, the person will suffer severe disasters. For example, if one is cursed or said something that is not good for wild boar or mice that destroy the plants, the plants would be destroyed completely by a pack of wild pigs or mice that provoke it. Likewise, if someone is challenging the strength and integrity of the 'elephants and tigers, they might collide with the animals. To prevent this from occurring, the animal's name is replaced by another term as follows:
Pak Belang word used to refer to replace tiger stripe found on his body. Thus, the word tiger will no longer be called, especially when in the woods as if called, as if the person who called is called the tiger. Similarly, the great man said that replacing the word elephant. The term refers to the great big elephant nature of his body. The term is also symbolic that the people who call it elephant respect hefty detainees and that can destroy human life. Root refers to replace the python snake creeping properties such as tree roots. Such is the wisdom of the Malays in the creation of new terms to replace the name of the feared animal.
(C) The sex / porn / function bodies
The community is the east, which is still thick with high culture and moral values. Furthermore, since the advent of Islam since the 13th century, the teachings of Islam adopted by the related moral and morality is in conformity with the nature of the community's gentle and very concerned about the dignity and self-esteem. Therefore, the question related to the body, especially related to women and family issues considered taboo by the community. Words related to the taboo is replaced with another word that is considered more polite and refined. The list is as follows:
In addition, matters relating to the functioning of the human body, such as feces, urine, feces, and flatus also considered taboo by the community. The words are considered dirty and gross. Therefore, the words are replaced with a more polite word, the bowel / large river, urination / small river, stools, and flatulence. Said the election result is still connotes a meaning to the word originally though basically has said otherwise. Said bowel / large river, such as referring indirectly act of defecation and not straightforward. Similarly, the word connotes actual exhaust air with his stomach wind through the anal canal. Although such actions are common to humans, but it is disgraceful for the community if called with the word fart because it is considered very rude and not courteous. Therefore, the word is replaced in order to be more polite and refined manners of the people who call.
Ironically, the existence of taboos in language brings good result in the development of language and culture. Indirectly, of modesty in speaking or euphemisms also develop in society. According to Teo Kok Seong, euphemisms are words or phrases that are more polite and refined in character to replace a word or phrase that is already considered as a gross and disgusting. Euphemisms or modesty is a condition that exists when one is trying to not make the spoken language or act or does is not considered offensive or violating the taboo concept set by society. Therefore, the word manure, urine, and feces are replaced with other words that are considered more polite, like feces, urination, and defecation.
As the community considers those words are words that are prohibited for use directly, it has triggered the euphemism or modesty in speaking. Euphemisms or modesty is a condition that exists when one is trying to not make the spoken language or act or does is not considered offensive or violating the taboo concept set by society. This situation exists because after the advent of Islam, the Malays are so concerned about good manners as taught in Islam. Commendable morals as taught by the Prophet (SAW) is the Malay Muslim community, not only in deed, thus in daily speech. This is entrenched in the community so that there is the concept of modesty or a euphemism to cover things that are taboo. This is so because, in the community, someone who uses words that are taboo not only considered uncivilized but also may offend the person concerned. For example, matters relating to women, such as menstruation, pregnancy, breast or teat are considered taboo by the community. These words were regarded as the words are not sweet or contain pornographic elements, especially when spoken by a man in front of a woman. Therefore, the words are replaced with words such as previously described. This is so because, a person who said those words were taboo can be regarded as being disrespectful or do not know manners and courtesy. Malay race is famed as a nation seeking high courtesy. Therefore, to prevent a person who is not regarded as virtuous or foul language immersion, a taboo word that will be discussed at length by the words or sentences plated or allegorical. This is a metaphor form sirkumlokusi used as an escape to become a taboo word that is not mentioned explicitly.
An interesting thing to talk about words that are taboo element is that some words are not taboo in certain circumstances. Although basically all words deemed taboo banned its use in the conversation, but the ban is limited in certain situations. Prohibition or restriction of the use of words that are considered taboo only covering aspects specific reference to the original meanings of the word alone, for example, the word manure, urine, and feces. If the words are spoken to refer to the original meaning, which refers to the residues of dung or human waste out of the anus, or the act of urination and defecation made by man, such words are considered taboo. However, these words are no longer considered taboo if used in the name of an object or disease or something allegoric nature. For example, a compound word that refers metaphorically mole existing dark spots on the skin of a human or duck droppings, a traditional cake in Kelantan. An anomaly in the community if the word is converted into a stool or feces of ducks flies to refer the same thing. Said bedwetting or diabetes that refers a disease that affects humans is also not considered a taboo, even people who call do not even feel shy and innocent. People who hear it will not be offended and think of the people who speak it as disrespectful. This is so because, the hearers to understand that spoken words that refer to the name of the disease, rather than the act of urinating.
Similarly, the shape of the allegoric Malay proverb, like a lizard excrement of lime, students and teachers standing pee pee ran. Said faeces and urine which is not mentioned in the proverb considered taboo. According to Teo Kok Seong, this occurs because "a word or phrase that has become taboo topic and be prohibited in the realm (plane) only certain". The expression taboo is taboo if not refer to the use of animals. This is so because, something considered taboo only happen if it involves matters relating to humans, especially in reference to women. As revealed by Teo Kok Seong, "incorrect, unnecessary, and very awkward in terms of the Malay language when we pronounce or write this as politely expressions -" Puss neighbor always defecate on my home page. " This means that, even if a person wants to be polite, use of bowel used to refer to the act cats are not appropriate in the context of the use of the Malay language. Not constitute an offense, nor considered impolite person if he used the phrase cat feces.
The knowledge of the community in terms of politeness, especially taboo in the community aspect is very important. This is because knowledge is the primary measure of whether a person is well mannered, polite, well-mannered or polite not only in speech but also in behavior. Naivete of a member of the public in this matter can CAUSED looked down upon by society. This knowledge also shows that a person is sensitive to matters relating to the regulation of society and language. Indeed, there are elements that are taboo in the community block someone from speaking with impunity, but this situation is accepted and agreed by all members of the community. It is also well-received by all members of society because of the taboo element of this, there is a rule that is associated with modesty and a noble character. Also coincides with the Malay community who still hold strongly to Eastern values, elements taboo not to be a burden in their daily lives, thus become an interest in everyday life.