ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Techniques used to Analyse DNA, RNA and Proteins

Updated on October 9, 2014

The products of gene expression (mRNA and proteins) can be measured by techniques such as the following:

Southern Blotting

Northern blots

Northern blots are very similar to southern blots except that the original sample contains a mixture of mRNA molecules that are separated by electrophoresis, then hybridized to a radioactive probe.

Northern Blotting
Northern Blotting

Southern Blotting vs Northern Blotting

Microarrays

Microarrays are used to determine the differing patterns of gene expression in two types of cells-

for example: normal and cancer cells.

Microarray Principle
Microarray Principle | Source

The approximately 40,000 genes of the human genome translate into hundreds of thousands of proteins when alternate splicing and post translational modifications are considered. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and western blots (immunoblots) are used to detect specific proteins

ELISAs

ELISAs are performed in the wells of plastic microtiter dish. The antigen (protein) is bound to the plastic of the dish. The probe used consists of an antibody specific for the particular proteins to be measured. The antibody is covalently bound to an enzyme, which will produce a colored produced can be used to determine the amount of protein (or antibody) in the sample to be tested.

ELISA
ELISA
Western blotting Gel
Western blotting Gel

Western blots

Western blots are also called immunoblots are similar to Southern blots, except that protein molecules in the sample separated by electrophoresis and blotted to a membrane. The probe is labeled antibody, which produces a band at the location of its antigen.

Proteomics

Proteomics involves the study of all proteins expressed by a genome, including their relative abundance, distribution, post translational modifications, functions, and interactions with other macromolecules. Proteomics offers the potential of identifying new disease markers and drug targets.

Molecular Techniques used to Analyse DNA, RNA and Proteins

No
Sample Analyzed
Techniques
Gel used
Purpose
1
DNA
ASO (Allele Specific Oligonucleotides)
No
Detects DNA mutations
2
DNA
Southern Blot
Yes
Detects DNA changes
3
RNA
Northern Blot
Yes
Measures mRNA amounts
4
RNA or cDNA
Microarray
No
Measures many mRNA levels at once.
5
Proteins
Western blot
Yes
Measures protein amounts
6
Proteins
Proteomics
Yes
Measures abundance, distribution, post translational modification, functions, and interactions of cellular proteins
7
Proteins or antibodies
ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assyas)
No
Detects proteins (antigens) or antibodies
Techniques used for Gene Expression Studies

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    Click to Rate This Article