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Terminologies in Architecture (Part- II)
List of terms covered in this hub.
- FLYING BUTTRESS
- TRANSVERSE ARCH
- JAMB STATUE
Pinnacle, in architecture, vertical ornament of pyramidal or conical shape, crowning a buttress, spire, or other architectural member. A pinnacle is distinguished from a finial by its greater size and complexity and from a tower or spire by its smaller size and subordinate architectural role. A tower may be decorated with pinnacles, each one capped by a finial.
A flying buttress is a specific form of buttressing most strongly associated with Gothic church architecture. The purpose of any buttress is to resist the lateral forces pushing a wall outwards (which may arise from stone vaulted ceilings or from wind-loading on roofs) by redirecting them to the ground.
An oculus (plural oculi, from Latin oculus, 'eye') is a circular opening in the centre of a dome or in a wall. Originating in antiquity, it is a feature of Byzantine and Neoclassical architecture.(GATE 2007)
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof. The parts of a vault exert lateral thrust that requires a counter resistance. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required.
Mehrab is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.(GATE 2007)
a clerestory is a high section of wall that contains windows above eye level. The purpose is to admit light, fresh air, or both.
Historically, clerestory denoted an upper level of a Roman basilica or of the nave of a Romanesque or Gothic church, the walls of which rise above the rooflines of the lower aisles and are pierced with windows.
Similar structures have been used in transportation vehicles to provide additional lighting, ventilation, or headroom.
transverse arch. noun, Architecture. a supporting arch or rib that runs across a vault from side to side, dividing the bays.
An arch is a curved structure that spans a space and may or may not support weight above it. Arch may be synonymous with vault but vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof.
a section of wall or a pillar entre two Openings, Especially dividing pillar has a wide doorway in a church.
a tympanum (plural, tympana) is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments.Most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Roman and in Christian architecture tympana usually contain religious imagery, when on religious buildings, and are very often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building.
An archivolt (or voussure) is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch.It is composed of bands of ornamental moldings (or other architectural elements) surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening. The word is sometimes used to refer to the under-side or inner curve of the arch itself (more properly, the intrados).
Spandrel, also spelled Spandril, the roughly triangular area above and on either side of an arch, bounded by a line running horizontally through the apex of the arch, a line rising vertically from the springing of the arch, and the curved extrados, or top of the arch. When arches adjoin, the entire area between their crowns and springing line is a spandrel. If it is filled in, as is ordinarily the case, the resulting structure is termed a spandrel wall. In medieval architecture it was usually ornamented.
A lintel can be a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals, doors, windows, and fireplaces.
VOUSSOIR, KEYSTONE, SPRINGER
Although each unit in an arch or vault is a voussoir, two units are of distinct functional importance: the keystone and the springer. The keystone is the center stone or masonry unit at the apex of an arch. It is often decorated or enlarged. An enlarged and slightly dropped keystone is often found in Mannerist arches of the 16th century, such as the portal of the "church house" at Colditz Castle. The springer is the lowermost voussoir, located where the curve of the arch springs from the vertical support or abutment of the wall or pier.
A doorjamb, door jamb or simply jamb (also sometimes doorpost) is the vertical portion of the door frame onto which a door is secured. The jamb bears the weight of the door through its hinges, and most types of door latches and deadbolts extend into a recess in the doorjamb when engaged, making the accuracy of the plumb (i.e. true vertical) and strength of the doorjambs vitally important to the overall operational durability and security of the door.
A jamb statue is a figure carved on the jambs of a doorway or window. These statues are often human figures- either religious figures or secular or ecclesiastical leaders. Jambs are usually a part of a portal, accompanied by lintel and trumeau.
Two commonly known examples of jamb statues are the ones located in Chartres Cathedral, France and the jamb statues located in Reims Cathedral, France.
For the mechanics of how flying buttresses work in practice see the pioneering study by Alan Borg and Robert Mark in "Chartres Cathedral: A Reinterpretation of Its Structure", in The Art Bulletin, Vol.55, No.3 (Sep., 1973), pp.367-372
"Glossary - Tympanum". Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
"Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture - tympanum". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
Nikolas Davies, Erkki Jokiniemi (2012). Architect's Illustrated Pocket Dictionary