ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Development Strategies

Updated on June 29, 2016

The main advantage of most bottom-up development strategies is that they focus on sustainability, are not profit-driven, and emphasise the involvement of entire communities, including females, in facilitating their own development, with the assistance of appropriate technology, funded by non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

One such project involves ActionAid providing farmers in Barlonyo, Uganda, with ox-ploughs and high-yield seeds. The Ugandan farmers generally own less than two acres of land each, and were previously exploited by middlemen. With the help of NGOs, the farmers formed a cooperative, and came together to rent a truck, to sell their sesame seed crops themselves in a nearby city.

The Three Gorges Dam in China.
The Three Gorges Dam in China. | Source

This project has had tangible results; the farmers now receive three times as much money for their crops, enabling them to send their children to school. The project has therefore had a sustained impact, as education will increase the chances of the farmers' children leading successful lives, escaping the poverty cycle.

On the other hand, top-down projects rely on large sums of money, often in the form of a loan, to fund large construction projects.

One such example is the Pergau Dam in Malaysia; it was funded by £234 million from the UK government, but required a further £100 million from the Malaysian government. The dam is an example of tied aid; the Malaysian government was required to purchase £1 billion of the UK's fighter jets.

The Pergau Dam produces electricity which is sent to Kuala Lumpur, thus bypassing the poorer rural communities. The reservoir only has sufficient water to run the hydroelectric power plant for a few hours per day, illustrating that tied-aid is almost entirely profit drive, and has little consideration for sustainable planning in the receiving country.

However, top-down projects do have the benefit of scale; the Three Gorges Dam in China protects over 100 million people from flooding.

Top-down projects are commonly in the form of a dam; these cause the loss of habitat, and the Three Gorges Dam contributed to the decline of the Yangtze river dolphin population, which is now categorised as functionally extinct. It also displaced over 1 million people, often with very little compensation, again showing how top-down projects tend to show less concern for the most impoverished people.

Both top-down and bottom-up projects are at risk of mothballing, but bottom-up projects arguably have the most tangible effect on the people who need the most help.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)