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The Age of Steam - Newcomen and Watt
The Industrial Revolution
The first practical steam engine was developed by Thomas Newcomen in the early eighteenth century. Steam was one of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution, allowing mills and other factories to be located away from rivers. Originally water which turned mill wheels was the source of power for machinery. James Watt and others improved the design of steam engines in the late eighteenth century and by the early nineteenth century, more compact engines using high pressure steam were built. These could be used in traction engines and were small and light enough to be used in the locomotives of the time, an example of which was Robert Stephenson's Rocket.
One of my passions is Victorian technology. In an era before computers, electronics, plastic, high complexity, miniaturization and radio communication, the order of the day was technology based on simple engineering principles. The materials which were used by Victorian engineers were steel, cast iron, cut stone, wood and brass, as well as natural fibers such as jute and hemp. Rivets held everything together before welding was invented. The internal combustion wasn't invented until the late nineteenth century and the driving force for machinery in factories, mines and on farms was the steam engine.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, steam tractors, also known as road locomotives were used as traction engines on farms for pulling trailers and wagons. The traction engines could also drive large circular saws, the power being transferred via a large flat belt from the flywheel on the engine. These saws were used to cut logs into planks. Steam tractors could also power a threshing machine which separated the grain from corn. These machines were the predecessors of the combine harvester.
Steam locomotives are wonderful! Big noisy brutes pushing out steam and smoke, certainly not environmentally friendly! Unlike modern locomotives which are featureless square blocks, the steam train locomotive has character, it is dynamic and you can see a lot of the working parts. When traveling on steam excursions and passing through stations or along the coast or the countryside, these machines always seem to make adults and children smile. Maybe it's because of watching too many episodes of "Thomas the Tank Engine" or because toy engines are often made to look like steam locomotives.