ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • Life Sciences

The Basement of the Plant

Updated on July 5, 2015
Source
Source
Source
Source

A house however small or big is supported by a basement below the ground which is invisible. The same way a plant or a tree is supported by a root system underground. As the building cannot stand high without a strong basement, a plant cannot stand upright without a strong root system.

Root is the underground axis of the plant body that anchors the plant in the soil. The whole underground part of a plant, in general, makes up the root system. The root system is generally positively geotropic and negatively phototropic. It has no nodes, internodes, leaves and normal buds. It is generally non chlorophyllous and brown colored. Lateral roots develop endogenously.

Types of Root System:

1. Taproot System: It develops from a radical which is long living and grows vertically and produces lateral roots obliquely. It is commonly found in monocots.

2. Adventitious Root System: Radical is short lived and degenerates. Fibrous roots develop from parts other than radical. It is commonly found in monocots.

Root Modifications:

Generally the roots perform the following functions:

1. They provide anchorage to the plant.

2. They absorb water and minerals from the soil.

3. They also conduct water and minerals to the shoot system.

But roots may perform additional functions according to the needs of the environment.

Definition: the permanent changes that occur in the structure of a root to perform new functions suitable for the environment are called root modifications.

Types of Root Modifications:

1. Storage roots / Tuberous roots

2. Vela men roots or Epiphytic roots

3. Photosynthetic or Assimilatory roots

4. Respiratory roots or Pneumatophores

5. Nodular roots

6. Parasitic roots or Haustoria

1. Storage Roots:

The roots that store food and swell up are called storage roots or tuberous roots. Generally biennial dicot plants store food during their first year of vegetative growth. These are called root crops. Ex: Daucus carota (carrot), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Beta vulgais (beet root). In monocots like Asparagus, the group of adventitious roots store food. These groups of fibrous roots that store food are called fasciculate roots.

2. Vela men Roots or Epiphytic Roots:

The plants that live on the branches of big trees to get enough sunlight are called epiphytes. The epiphytic roots contain two types of roots.

a. Clinging Roots: They help in fixing the plant to the host tree.

b. Velamen Roots: They are long, thick, branced and freely hand in the air. They contain a hygroscopic tissue called velamen tissue. The velamen tissue helps in absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. Ex: Vanda.

3. Photosynthetic Roots or Assimilatory Roots:

In some epiphtes the stem and leaves are absent. The roots in these plants are aerial, flat and green colored and carry out photosynthesis. Ex: Taeniophyllum, Tinospora, Trapa

4. Respiratory Roots or Pneumatophores:

Mangrove plants living in water logged conditions suffer from lack of oxygen. These plants develop aerial roots which posies minute pores for absorption of oxygen from air. These pores are called pneumathodes and the roots bearing them are called pneumatophores or respiratory roots or Breathing roots. Ex: Rhizophora and Avicennia.

5. Nodular Roots:

The roots of legume plants show symbiosis with Rhizobioum bacteria which produce nodules on the roots. Such roots with nodules are called nodular roots. The Rhizobium bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and supply it to the host. In turn the bacteria receive food and shelter. Ex: Arachis, Dolichus.

6. Parasitic Roots or Haustoria:

The plants which depend on other plants completely or incompletely for their food are called parasitic plants. They have special roots which help in absorptionof water, minerals and food from the host. These roots are called haustoria or parasitic roots. The parasites may be root parasites or stem parasites. They may be complete parasites, i.e they absorb food, minerals and water from the host, or incomplete parasites which absorb only minerals and water from the host.

Many more modifications like prop roots in Banyan (Ficus bhengalensis), stilt roots (Zea mays), plank roots (Buttress roots-Terminalia), serve the function of additional mechanical support to the plant. The climibing roots of pothos and betel vine help the plant to climb up the support.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)