ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Danger of False Memory - A Psychological Review

Updated on July 24, 2019

“Remembrance of things past is not necessarily the remembrance of things as they were.”

Marcel Proust

So much of our identities as individuals - our interests, our knowledge, even our world view - can be attributed to our memories. Many memories we keep as precious possessions, pulling them off the shelves of our minds during moments when we need strength, or guidance, or even just a reason to smile. To put it simply, our memories define us. Perhaps this is why it is so disturbing a realization that remembering is no exact science. On the contrary, memories are fragile, subject to corrosion, embellishment, and even manipulation. False memories - inaccurate memories that we believe to be real - present themselves in various forms and have the potential to cause serious real-life problems.

Source Amnesia

Have you ever shared a childhood memory with your parents, only to be informed that you were merely an infant at the time and must be “remembering” the story as it was told to you? Most likely they’re correct – this mishap, called “source amnesia”, or “source misattribution”, is quite common. When a person cannot remember the source of a particular fact or event, they may mistakenly attribute it to the wrong origin.

Similarly, it’s possible that we forget having read or heard original thoughts from another person, and incorrectly believe that we’ve come up with them ourselves. This phenomenon is known as “cryptomnesia”, and can be quite embarrassing for the unwitting plagiarizer. (Gluck, 97)

In the Lab

Sir Frederick Bartlett studied the role of schemas in memory in an experiment conducted in 1932, in which participants were told a series of stories. When asked to recall these stories after some time had passed, participants embellished the original stories with details that fit into their schemas.

When recounting the story of a battle, for example, some participants insisted that there were “many wounded”, when in fact the story mentioned no such thing. Because their schema of battle involves injury, they imagined this to be part of the story as well. (Griggs, 178)

Filling in the Blanks

Inaccuracy in recall goes beyond the mere source – we are quite capable of distorting the content of our memories as well. Memories are not formed instantaneously; rather, there is a stage of malleability called the consolidation period. Some researchers believe that memories are similarly vulnerable during recall, allowing for small losses and alterations to take place each time the memory is reactivated, producing significant discrepancies over time. (Gluck, 406)

As memories deteriorate, we find ourselves filling in the blanks with what we assume happened, and these assumptions aren’t always correct. In order to make sense of the world, our minds create schemas, or frameworks of knowledge about events in life. These schemas help us predict the usual process of various things, such as dining at a restaurant (the hostess seats you, your server takes the order, you eat your meal, a bill is presented, etc.). If a detail becomes foggy, your schema steps in to fill in the blanks.

So memories aren't perfect, but how is that dangerous?

In the Lab

Professor Elizabeth F. Loftus of the University of Washington is known for her extensive research into the influence of suggestion on human memory. In one of her experiments, Dr. Loftus showed participants a video of a car accident involving an intersection with a stop sign. It was then suggested to the half of the participants that the intersection had a yield sign. When later asked to recall the details of the video, the participants that experienced suggestion were more likely to “remember” a yield sign, while the other half of the participants remembered accurately. (Loftus, 71)

False Content

What happens when such embellishments are aided by the power of suggestion? Is it possible for false memories to be planted? In a word, yes. Acts as simple as prompting a person to imagine an event taking place can encourage them to believe it actually happened. If we imagine events, we can later confuse them with reality in a phenomenon similar to source amnesia. (Gluck, 98)

Now apply this knowledge to a real-life situation, such as the questioning of an eyewitness in a court case. The possibilities are unnerving.

Hypnosis may seem like an old wive's tale, but it is used often today in more modern form.
Hypnosis may seem like an old wive's tale, but it is used often today in more modern form.


When the case went to court and became public, Beth's father lost his position as a clergyman in his church. False or otherwise, serious accusations produce life-long consequences.

Hypnotic Horrors

Beyond simple suggestion, there are other factors that can strongly affect the reconstruction of memory, especially when the memory is “recovered” from the past. Perhaps the most common way such “memories” are obtained is through hypnotherapy.

Consider the story of Beth Rutherford, who began seeing a church counselor for stress-related symptoms at the age of 22. Convinced that the symptoms were similar to those exhibited by sexual abuse in children, the counselor practiced hypnosis with Beth and encouraged her to imagine in detail having been abused as a child. (Gluck, 393) Over time, Beth began to “regain” detailed and gruesome memories of childhood that included rape by her father. When Beth was examined for evidence, it was discovered that she was still a virgin. (Loftus, 70) The horrible “memories” that Beth had dredged up in therapy were completely fictitious.

Another Example of Questionable Testimony

Authority Steps In

These cases haven't gone unnoticed. The American Medical Association has since stated that “recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse are of uncertain authenticity, should be subject to verification and are fraught with the problem of potential mis-implication.” (Merskey, 258)

The parahippocampal gyrus plays an important role in memory encoding.
The parahippocampal gyrus plays an important role in memory encoding.

A Physiological Solution?

Is there a way to distinguish between false memories and reality? Possibly. Experiments involving the creation of false memories in participants have been closely studied for clues. FMRIs (functional magnetic resonance imaging, a technique that monitors brain activity) conducted during the recollection stage of these experiments reveal that most areas of the brain involved in memory are equally active during the remembrance of the correct words and the incorrect theme words . . . with the exception of the parahippocampal gyrus, a portion of the medial temporal lobes. This area is more active during presentation of the correct words than the false theme words. ( This study suggests a physiological solution to the issue of false memory, though a real-life application has yet to be attempted.

The Moral of the Story

Physiological clues may someday provide the answer for distinguishing between falsehoods and true recollection. Until that day comes, we can probably all agree that despite what we may believe, memory should never be taken for granted.


Gluck, Mark A. Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior. New York: Worth Publishers, 2008.

Griggs, Richard A. Psychology, A Concise Introduction. New York: Worth Publishers, 2009.

Justman, Stewart. Fool’s Paradise. Chicago: Ivan R. Lee, 2005.

Loftus, Elizabeth F. “Creating False Memories.” Scientific American, September 1997: 70-75.

Merskey, Harold. “Prevention and Management of False Memory Syndrome.” Advances in Psychiatric Treatment: Journal of Continuing Professional Development, 1998: 253-260

Can medial temporal lobe regions distinguish true from false? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 25 October 2000. Web. 19 November 2011. <>

© 2012 Allison


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image


      6 years ago

      This kind of game gives a real experience of building a farm and planting trees. kdkebadfcgfd

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      That’s an interesting point AlexK2009 – I suppose you could use false memory for good as well. Perhaps that’s the idea behind hypnotism as treatment for quitting smoking. I can’t imagine allowing anybody to hypnotize me though. You’d have to really, truly trust that individual.

      Thanks for reading!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Jama Genee,

      That is truly a heartbreaking story. It’s just terrible that somebody can go their whole life thinking that their parent had done that to them. It must be so damaging. Not to mention how her father must have been cast out like a pariah, poor man.

      Thank you for reading and for sharing such a relevant example!

    • AlexK2009 profile image


      8 years ago from Edinburgh, Scotland

      I read somewhere visitors to Disneyland can be convinced they shook hands with Bugs Bunny ( A Warner Brothers character).

      Memory seems to be volatile and unreliable anyway but planting memories as the woman's Grandpa did is generally evil, though I suppose it could be used in a benign fashion.

    • JamaGenee profile image

      Joanna McKenna 

      8 years ago from Central Oklahoma

      Most veteran law enforcement officers will tell you a total stranger (a passerby, for instance) who was an "eyewitness" should not be the only "proof" that a certain person committed the crime. And yes, there are many innocent people behind bars because of this.

      As for "planting memories", I know of a well-to-do grandfather who never liked the man his daughter married, even less so after she fell into a coma shortly after giving birth to the couple's only child, a daughter. She lingered in that state for several years before she died, during which time the son-in-law obtained a divorce (there was NO hope she'd EVER recover) and married the woman he's been with now for 30-some years. Until he remarried, the baby was pretty much raised by his relatives. But when the girl was a teenager and having "normal" teenage issues, good ol' Grandpa paid for a shrink, and to everyone's surprise and astonishment, she began "remembering" being sexually abused by her father. Which, of course, never happened. Really. But she cut all ties with her father. Then it came to light that the grandfather, being quite wealthy, told her he'd cut her out of the will if she ever had any further contact with her father or any of his relatives. The upshot being no one from his side of the family could get near her to convince her her "memories" were planted by the well-paid shrink. Very sad. By now, I hope she's realized they weren't memories at all, but she's lived under the radar for so many years, we'll probably never know.

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Lyn. Stewart,

      Oh wow, that is such a great example. It makes you wonder how many people behind bars are the wrong people entirely. Just as in therapy, questioning by police could be so easily skewed.

    • Lyn.Stewart profile image


      8 years ago from Auckland, New Zealand

      This is really interesting. voted up as well. I watched a T.V. programme where people were taken to a park and they saw a handbag stollen, then they were taken back to the office and the guy running the programme asked them what they saw then told them he saw blue shoes and a couple of other things ie blonde hair in a ponytail. 80% of the people then started saying they had seen the same things. In a fake police lineup the 80% all said the only person wearing that colour shoe was the culprit.

      They were then told how this piece of information had been implanted. The person who played the part of the bag snatcher then stepped forward ... he had black hair and white sneakers.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Great hub further enlightened by pertinent comments. Hope you'll give us more on relative subjects.

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA


      Unfortunately, leading takes place without hypnosis. If you’re mind has any holes or uncertainties in your recollection, leading questions can fill those in without your awareness through mere conversation.

      And thanks to MizBejabbers for answering the question about lingering hypnosis – I’ve been wondering about that myself ever since I saw the movie Office Space :)

      Thanks for reading!

    • MizBejabbers profile image

      Doris James MizBejabbers 

      8 years ago from Beautiful South

      I am so glad that you have written this hub and documented it so thoroughly. Anyone who has been a victim of someone's false memories, or who has a family member who was such a victim, can testify to the dangers. Unfortunately, our legal system rarely takes that into consideration. And yes, SouthernHoney, it gets worse as one ages. Sometimes I have to stop and sort out what really happened and what I was told. It gets scary because when it happens to an older person, we wonder if it is a sign of Alzheimers.

      @MobyWho: Yes, lingering hypnosis is possible. I took self-hypnosis classes many years ago, and our instructor told of an incident of lingering hypnosis that happened to her. Fortunately hers was harmless, but it frightened her and she warned us to "never give control of our minds to another person." (Meaning don't let anyone hypnotize you.)

    • MobyWho profile image


      8 years ago from Burlington VT

      I had heard that no one could be hypnotized against his/her will...does that fit in with the theory of 'leading' the patient? Frankly, I'd be afraid of hypnosis lingering. Is that possible? Thanks for a great hub on a slightly scary subject.

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Hi Stephanie,

      I totally agree - I’m already filling in the blanks at 25, so I shudder to think how much worse this memory is going to get over the years … haha! Thanks for the comment and feedback.

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Thanks Angie, it’s wonderful to hear feedback from an industry professional! Hypnotherapy is such a fascinating topic to me, but I agree, not one to be taken lightly. Thanks so much for reading!

    • Stephanie Henkel profile image

      Stephanie Henkel 

      8 years ago from USA

      I thoroughly enjoyed reading your well-written and documented hub. The older I get, the more I realize how unreliable memories are! I do find myself filling in the blanks, and it is very interesting to compare memories of the same event with my children or siblings.

      That false memories can be generated during hypnosis is truly frightening! If one believes that something bad happened to them as a child, it seems that the effect would almost be as bad as if it had actually happened!

      Thanks for a great hub! Voted up and shared!

    • Angie Jardine profile image

      Angie Jardine 

      8 years ago from Cornwall, land of the eternally youthful mind ...

      As a retired clinical hypnotherapist I am so glad you wrote this hub, SouthernHoney.

      It is so important to be neutral and not directive when doing this sort of therapy and sadly there are therapists out there who 'lead' the client to see pictures in their minds of things that didn't happen.

      Hypnosis can be very effective but unfortunately sometimes a therapist's training is not as thorough as it should have been.

      An extremely well-written and well-researched hub. Voted for.

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA


      So true, you certainly shouldn’t treat every memory like it’s a fraud. Those Holocaust deniers have an awful lot of identical “false” memories to explain though!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Thanks PiYe19 - I’m so glad you enjoyed it. I look forward to exploring your hubs as well!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Shahid Bukhari,

      Well put, nothing is certain when it comes to matters of the mind. I love the idea of the “junction of your conscious and unconscious … sits the banished.” Very Freudian. Thanks for reading!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA


      Thanks for the feedback! What a fascinating idea, I wonder what the theory is behind the colorful images. Unfortunately, one area that psychology has been fairly unsuccessful at is memory improvement. But research continues, so we’ll see!

    • AlexK2009 profile image


      8 years ago from Edinburgh, Scotland

      Great hub. It works two ways however. Holocaust deniers have claimed survivors' memories are false memories.

    • PiYe19 profile image


      8 years ago

      This was a very interesting hub. I appreciate you sharing this information and look forward to others like it ; excellent.

    • Shahid Bukhari profile image

      Shahid Bukhari 

      8 years ago from My Awareness in Being.

      The mundane Reality of the "Mind" has to be first understood ... before you start passing judgments about Reality ... of Brains, playing tricks ... Memory's Corruption ... allegedly due the workings of Mind !

      For, at the "Junction of your Conscious and Unconscious ... sits the banished ... planting ideas, as these transit from one, to the other side of the "Mind" ...

    • English-Central profile image

      Naif Hamed Almutairy 

      8 years ago from Saudi Arabia

      vote up!

      on the other hand, how is it possible to enhance our memories so that we don't hurt ourselves or others?

      the strangest answer I've ever came across was to avoid looking at colorful images!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA


      That’s a perfect example! I know, I have several memories from childhood that are completely botched. I just had a conversation with my family about a funny event from years ago, and we argued forever over the details. Everybody had their own version.

      Thanks for the comment, and for your vote – I really appreciate the support. Nice to meet you!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Hi Pamela99,

      Wow, you really have experienced this first hand. Thank goodness your brother was able to sort out fact from fiction! That must be a truly confusing experience.

      Thanks so much for your feedback, I appreciate the comment and nice to meet you!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA


      Kind of unnerving, isn't it? :) Thanks so much for your comment, and for posting the link for other readers! I appreciate your time.

    • wordscribe43 profile image

      Elsie Nelson 

      8 years ago from Pacific Northwest, USA

      You have my vote for the hubnugget nomination, that's for sure. What a fantastic, thorough and well documented hub. Memories really are interesting. I was just thinking about things I "remember" from my childhood, in particular in 1969 when we first landed on the moon. I do remember seeing the footage on the TV. But, I also remember my cat lying on our old radiator in front of my parents window... just by the TV during the newscast. It dawned on me that I didn't really remember the cat lying there at all... I'd just seen it in a photograph. But, the memory seemed just as real all the same. Sorry for the tangent. Good luck!

    • Pamela99 profile image

      Pamela Oglesby 

      8 years ago from Sunny Florida

      This is an extremely interesting hub. It is very well written with such excellent documentation. My brother was in therapy many years ago and the psychologist tried to instill a memory of him being molested when he was very young in day care. Now he is quite sure it never happened.

      Congratulations on your well deserved nomination.

    • ripplemaker profile image

      Michelle Simtoco 

      8 years ago from Cebu, Philippines

      Now you have got me thinking LOL Hmmmm.....

      Congratulations on your Hubnuggets nomination. To those who would like to read and vote, this way

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Thanks so much ShepherdLover! I really appreciate that :)

    • ShepherdLover profile image


      8 years ago from Portland, OR

      Wow, what an interesting hub! (And congrats on your HubNuggets nomination!)

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Oh wow, thank you so much vespawoolf! I just found out, how exciting! I really appreciate your support.

    • vespawoolf profile image

      Vespa Woolf 

      8 years ago from Peru, South America

      This is a well-written and well-documented hub. I'm in full agreement that memories, like computer files, are fragile. Congratulations on the HubNugget nomination. You have my vote!

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Thanks Sparkster! It really is a fascinating subject :)


    • sparkster profile image

      Marc Hubs 

      8 years ago from United Kingdom

      Excellent hub, very interesting. Love psychology.

    • SouthernHoney profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Thank you Healthy Pursuits! I appreciate the feedback, and look forward to exploring your hubs as well.


    • Healthy Pursuits profile image

      Karla Iverson 

      8 years ago from Oregon

      Excellent hub! Very well written, and I appreciate your sourcing. I've decided to follow you. More interesting reading to come, I'm sure.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)