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The Hereditary Health Courts in Nazi Germany

Updated on November 5, 2012

Hereditary Diseased Progeny prevention law


On 14th July 1933 the Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Progeny was published. This law provided that people who had hereditary diseases could be forcibly sterilised in order to prevent their disease being passed on to further generations. It is estimated that approximately 375,000 German nationals were sterilised under this law. This figure does not include any Jewish people, Poles or Romany travellers who may have been sterilised in the camps.

The structure of the Courts


Patients were reported, sometimes by family members but mostly be doctors and teachers and their cases considered by the Hereditary Health courts. Doctors were ordered to register every patient who had a genetic illness or face a fine. There were two levels of court. The first layer was the lower court which had a panel with three members, two doctors- at least one with hereditary illness experience and a magistrate. If a person was found to be hereditary ill then they could appeal to the second court which again had two doctors with experience in hereditary diseases and with a circuit judge as the third member. There were at least 181 courts in Germany so it was just a matter of time before all cases were considered. Doctors were required to attend classes for training in genetics at one of the many racial centres that were being established in the country. There was even a journal specifically to discuss racial issues “Der Erhartz” which gave guidance on not only who should be sterilised, but also the latest sterilisation techniques.

Categories of treatment for sterilisation


Once open the courts were busy with cases to consider for sterilisation treatment. It has been estimated that 92.8% of cases put forward to the courts received judgement in favour of sterilisation.

The categories considered were:

  • Congenital feebleness- this could accommodate those who were of low intelligence especially if it could be proved that a near relation was also of low intelligence. People with little access to education could easily fall into this category.
  • Schizophrenia- despite the sufferer having periods of sanity and normality and no evidence to suggest that it was a hereditary illness.
  • . Manic Depression (psychosis) It was not believed that a permanent treatment/ cure, could be found and again despite no evidence as to its hereditary nature, it was included.
  • Hereditary epilepsy
  • Huntingdon’s Chorea
  • . Hereditary Blindness
  • . Hereditary Deafness
  • . Severe Hereditary Deformity
  • . Severe alcoholism by discretionary decision.

Court Processes

The nature and processes of the Hereditary Health courts benefits from further examination. They were not there to hear evidence on both sides or even to inspect the patient to see if the reports on them were correct; they simply made decisions on the evidence in front of them. Unlike other courts they were not impartial often those who were involved in the reporting procedure were also involved in the decision making procedure. The courts rarely saw the patients full medical records, being served only extracts which they would often take without explanation.

Many of the diseases and indeed the name of the Court stated that in many cases they were investigating hereditary illness. The definition of hereditary was open , rather than distinctly laid down scientific explanation it was left to explanation by ill qualified individuals making a leap of faith to follow the policy. The issue was plain when was a disability like blindness or deafness hereditary and when was it not? Some categories like mental illness, schizophrenia and manic depression and even alcoholism did not have the hereditary clause. This enabled patients whose families showed no signs of disease to be sterilised without comment.

Record keeping


The Nazi government adherence to record keeping gave a valuable insight into those who were sterilised in the first year. The majority of patients ( I use this word as I am at a loss to describe their role) were from the first two groups, either congenitally feeble 52.9% or sufferers of Schizophrenia 25.4% Epilepsy sufferers amounted to 14% of the sterilisations whilst Manic depression and alcoholism was combined at 5.6%. The congenital diseases and handicaps such as Blindness and Deafness made up the rest at a small percentage. It was clear that the law was used to take action against the feeble minded and mentally ill before those who were handicapped but able to live in society.

Nurembourg Racial Laws


Further steps were taken to cleanse the German Race. Much is known of the Nuremburg Racial Laws in 1935 which prohibited marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Germans but later in that year (Oct 18th 1935) the law “For the Protection of the Hereditary Health of the German Nation” was passed which prevented marriage if one or both parties to the marriage suffered from disabilities under the sterilisation law. This law was policed by the Public Health Office who issued a certificate of “Marriage Fitness” which was necessary for any couple to possess if they wished to marry.

Early Eugenics models


Racial Hygiene was not a brand new Nazi theory, appearing from nowhere. It was expounded at the end of the nineteenth century by Alfred Ploetz and Wilhelm Schallmayer as a way of controlling the breeding of those deemed to be inferior. Initially not anti Semitic, it simply divided between those who were fit and those who were unfit. It was National Socialism that introduced a racial stand concentrating on the elimination of the Jewish genetic influence. The German model was initially based on the American model where by the late 1920’s almost 15,000 people had been sterilised, mostly inmates of mental institutions and most in the State of California. This is one of the reasons why the perpetrators of sterilisation were not considered as war criminals at Nuremburg as to do so would have meant charging a large number of American officials.

References


If you want to know more, especially about death in the mental heath wards in Germany 1900-1945 read "Death and Deliverance" by Michael Burleigh.

An easier read is "Deaf People in Hitler's Europe" by Donna F. Ryan and John S Schuchman

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    • Just History profile image
      Author

      Just History 6 years ago from England

      Joanveronica- Thank you for your visit- Remember us - yes we should- and also remember that the aryanisation programme was not just anihilation of the Jews

      Thanks for your visit

    • joanveronica profile image

      Joan Veronica Robertson 6 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      I think the expression that came into existence at the end of the war, says it all: Remember Us! It is good to be reminded of what must never happen again. Great article.

    • Just History profile image
      Author

      Just History 6 years ago from England

      RTalloni- Thanks for your visit- It is truly horrendous, yet I am not sure that society will not "progress" to this again- the sheer horror of what the Nazi's did is the only prevention at the moment.

    • RTalloni profile image

      RTalloni 6 years ago from the short journey

      The arrogance mankind can come to is incredible. Thanks for this straightforward look at this issue during that time period.

    • Just History profile image
      Author

      Just History 6 years ago from England

      Judi Bee- Thanks for your visit- I kept this one short purposely as it is a small dose subject

      phdast17 - I agree with you totally, even at undergraduate level I have to sit on my hands as I a classroom assistant often am more aware than the teaching staff of what happenned. I thought this hub might be too controversial- the Eugenics programmes of the early twentieth centruy were not confined to the bad guys, the good guys did it too and I think some of the good guys would ike to do it again, but with different categories- eg sex offenders but instead of sterilisation the more extreme castration

      Audrey Howitt- thanks for your visit much appreciated

      Suzette Naples- Thanks for your visit- chilling it certainly is. I guess what makes me most interested is the fact that I have a hereditary hearing condition which without modern electronics would make me a very poor communicator- would I have been reported?

      UnamedHarald-Food for thought? What starts as perhaps a reasonable idea to some people ends in ................. You are right it is up to every citizen of the world to make sure that corporations and the state and the church do not overstep the boundaries. Thanks for your visit

    • UnnamedHarald profile image

      David Hunt 6 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

      I'd heard of these laws in passing but this is especially chilling in America at this time when our freedoms are under attack. We not only have to worry about the government, but now corporations and religious institutions getting in on the act where healthcare is concerned. Very nice article. Voted up and interesting.

    • suzettenaples profile image

      Suzette Walker 6 years ago from Taos, NM

      What a dreadful, dreadful time in Germany! Thank you for this insightful hub. Man's inhumanity to man is staggaring!

    • AudreyHowitt profile image

      Audrey Howitt 6 years ago from California

      Very interesting hub!

    • phdast7 profile image

      Theresa Ast 6 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

      A very important Hub. In the classroom I find that very few people are aware of the programs Hitler and the Nazis devised and implemented against their own people, before they started building the Death Camps. Of course the concentration camps began as early as 1933 to house political opponents of the regime.

      Few people are aware of the eugenics operations -sterilizations and how they transitioned into the killing operations inside the Death Camps. Even fewer are aware of the American sterilization projects of the teens and twenties. Thank you for this article. SHARING

    • Judi Bee profile image

      Judith Hancock 6 years ago from UK

      I knew it happened, but haven't read up on it before. Too depressing for words, but thanks for sharing it.

      Voted up etc.

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