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The Legend of John Henry

Updated on December 22, 2011

"John Henry" is perhaps the best known and most recorded American folk song dating back to the late 19th century. The ballad chronicles the story of a folk hero who was a steel driving hammer man. Some tell the story of his birth and his own belief the Hammer would be the death of him.

His job was to drive steel spikes into rock so dynamite could be placed in them in order to blast tunnels through mountains and lay track. Driving steel by hand was hard, dangerous work and it was said one in five workers were killed on the job. But, was John Henry a real person, a legendary myth or perhaps both?

Most historians believe John Henry was an actual person who became a legend following a historical event. But they tend to disagree when and where the incident took place. However, it is evident the basic premise is the same.

The story began when the railroad company Henry was working for proposed introducing a new fangled invention called a steam drill. It was their intention to make human hammer men obsolete.

John Henry believed a man could still out drill a machine and thereby challenged the railroad to a day-long contest with a $100 wager he could beat the steam drill. He won, but what happened next has been the subject of much debate. All agree he died, but how and when is the question. Some say he died immediately after the contest from sheer exhaustion. Others say he died in a tunnel when a blast showered rocks and boulders down on him. Yet others say he became ill and died from a fever. The question may never be answered.

Where and when the contest was held is another mystery. But it’s believed to have been one of the following:

· Near Birmingham, Alabama in the late 1880s building the Coosa Tunnel for the C&W railroad.

· In Summers County, West Virginia during the 1870s building the Big Bend Tunnel.

According to Louis Chappell in his 1933 book, John Henry, a Folk Lore Study, Henry was employed by the C&O during the building of the Great Bend Tunnel. While doing research for his book in 1925 Chappell spoke to men who knew and worked with him. Some had worked as young boys, carrying water and steel for the crews. Many remembered John Henry as a six-foot tall, 200 pound Negro. Some believe he was a freed slave from Virginia.

Chappell found a few men who thought Henry was from North Carolina. A D.R. Gilpin, from Hinton, NC said, "I know he was from North Carolina, for he used to get my brother-in-law, to write letters to his people there.”

There are many stories about Henry, some fact, some legend, that have filtered down to us over time. What one chooses to believe about the larger than life icon is a personal choice.

Some stories claim he could drive steel with a hammer in each hand. There are mixed reviews on the hammer weights. They have been said to weigh as little as nine pounds to as much as forty.

According to a 1963 report submitted by Historian Lester Lively, John Henry’s hammer was found in the tunnel in 1932 when a concrete floor was poured. Apparently they had been left there on purpose. Superstition held it was bad luck to use the hammer of someone who had died.

John Henry was said to have been a happy-go-lucky individual with a quick wit and always at the ready with a joke or two. It was also said he was an excellent singer and banjo player. He could always be heard singing, whiling away the long tedious and monotonous days swinging his hammer.

Some have said the ringing of steel on steel can still be heard echoing through the mountains.


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    • Daffy Duck profile image

      Daffy Duck 6 years ago from Cornelius, Oregon

      Personally I think me may have died as a result of some kind of severe heart attack. Working so hard for so long against a machine would have taken it's toll.

      Interesting article.

    • profile image

      femmeflashpoint 6 years ago


      You heard me laughing out loud all the way to the Carolina Coast, right?

      I don't have a clue how to use photo shop, and I haven't had glamour shots done since I was in my 20s, so answer is no. A simple shot with a simple camera when I happened to be having a good hair day, lol!


    • JY3502 profile image

      John Young 6 years ago from Florence, South Carolina

      Neither, It's fooling around with pretty gals like you. {:-)

      Is that one of those glamour photo shop pictures?

    • profile image

      femmeflashpoint 6 years ago


      You've aged well!

      Is your secret bourbon or cocoa butter?


    • JY3502 profile image

      John Young 6 years ago from Florence, South Carolina

      Well Femme, most folks don't know I helped him dig that tunnel. And I taught him how to swing those hammers. BTW..PUT MY COAL CHUNKS BACK!!!

    • profile image

      femmeflashpoint 6 years ago


      On a trip in W.VA. looking for some cycling spots, I came across a tunnel with a historical marker near it, stating it'd been dug by John Henry. It was HUGE! I walked through it and picked up some little coal chunks on my way out because I'm sentimental like that, lol.

      Didn't hear John Henry singing, and didn't hear any hammer heads hitting steel, but even without any supernatural occurrances, the tunnel was impressive, regardless of who dug it.

      I enjoyed this!


    • bloggernotjogger profile image

      bloggernotjogger 6 years ago from La Cala de Mijas, Spain

      Great stuff, it has been a while since I´ve heard that name. There should be more articles written about American folklore.

    • JY3502 profile image

      John Young 6 years ago from Florence, South Carolina

      I only heard one of the songs, but it inspired me to write this.

    • Alastar Packer profile image

      Alastar Packer 6 years ago from North Carolina

      Mornin John. Got a book on American folklore as a youngster and it had the John Henry story in it. Fascinating story, man against machine. You've got some cool info in the hub here. So he might have been from N.C. And they supposedly found his hammer, wow. Thanks for writing and researching this one up!