ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Melting Pot History of Louisiana

Updated on March 23, 2016

Louisiana was founded in 1682 by the French explorer Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (also known as Robert de La Salle) and named in honor of King Louis XIV. New Orleans, originally named La Nouvelle-Orleans, was founded May 7, 1718, by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, and named after Philippe II, Duke of Orleans.

In 1722 immigrants began coming in from all over Europe, most of them were French. The wave of immigrants included a group of women (around 50) from “houses of correction” (a place for “women and girls of bad lives who cause a public scandal” (1) to be housed). They were the only women in town at that time.

November 13, 1762 King Louis the XV of France, made a secret agreement with King Charles III of Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which cites the relinquish of “the country known as Louisiana, as well as New Orleans and the island in which the city is situated” (1).


Along with the Spanish came Acadians who were descendants of French colonists residing in present day French Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The Acadians were persecuted there and went into the bayous and back rivers of New Orleans. Their name, Acadians, was eventually shorten to Cajuns. By the middle 1700s they were settled throughout the bayous of Louisiana around New Orleans.

The Spanish had a very open immigration policy, which attracted immigrants from various lands. In 1791, the slave uprising in Saint-Domingue, what is now called Haiti, caused a lot of people to come into New Orleans who brought along voodoo.

The mingling of cultures in South Louisiana is called "creolization." Creole, originating from the Portuguese word crioulo (meaning native to a region), originally referred to the European French/Spanish colonial population in South Louisiana and the Caribbean region. Today, Creole commonly refers to people of mingled Black, Spanish, French, and Indian descent.

When Napoleon Bonaparte became emperor of France, he decided he wanted Louisiana back from the Spanish in hopes to recapture the valuable sugar colony of Saint-Domingue from a slave rebellion and use Louisiana as the storeroom for his empire. He regained ownership of Louisiana in 1800 through the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso and took possession in 1802. Napoleon was unable to succeed in his attempt to overtake Saint-Domingue which made Louisiana strategically undesirable and decided to sell Louisiana to the United State. Under Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, The Louisiana Purchase was signed on April 30, 1803 for a total of 15 million dollars which declared the United States pay 11.25 million dollars to France and forgive 3.75 million dollars of French debt to American citizens.


On March 26, 1804, Congress voted to divide the Louisiana Purchase into two parts which were the Territory of Orleans, present day Louisiana, and the District of Louisiana, later called the Missouri Territory. In March 1810, a petition to accept the Territory of Orleans into the Union was presented to the Senate. However, “controversies over race, religion, law, language and culture not only delayed Louisiana’s statehood until 1812, they worked like the rumbling of an earthquake along the vulnerable fault lines of the 19th-century American society and government.” (3) However, arguments for the Territory of Orleans’s statehood prevailed and the Territory of Orleans was admitted to the Union as the State of Louisiana on April 30, 1812.

Resources

(1) Spear, Jennifer M. Race, Sex, and Social Order in Early New Orleans.

(2) Herbermann, Charles. 'Louisiana' The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church.

(3) Huhla, Jon. A Wilderness So Immense.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Kosmo profile image

      Kelley Marks 

      7 months ago from California

      The Age of Exploration is a very interesting time period. Anyway, it's hard to believe that the US could afford to pay 15 million bucks in those days. They must have borrowed the money, ya know? Later!

    • lions44 profile image

      CJ Kelly 

      2 years ago from Auburn, WA

      Very interesting hub. I don't think people realize how different Louisiana is from every other Southern State. Shared.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)