ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Most Abundant Substance in the Universe: What Is Dark Energy?

Updated on February 28, 2018


The universe is expanding beyond the intuitive thought that gravity should make it contract. After the big bang, and inflation, scientists used to think that gravity should make the universe shrink in size until everything was back to where it began. This thought was proven false. In the 1930s when Edwin Hubble found that galaxies were red-shifted, meaning the light was being stretched into the redder part of the spectrum, that the galaxies were moving away from the Earth. He also found that the further away these galaxies were, the more the light was stretched. This brought him to the conclusion that the universe was expanding.

This puzzled scientists, and was counter-intuitive. Gravity should be pulling everything together yet something was pushing it apart. This brought on the idea that the galaxies were not just moving apart, but the actual space between galaxies is expanding.

Dark matter and dark energy are two things we measure in the universe that are making things happen, and we have no idea what the cause is.

— Neil deGrasse Tyson

What Is Dark Energy?

Dark energy is a mostly hypothetical construct. It is so rarefied that that one meter cubed of it would weigh approximately 10-27 kilograms. That is .0000000000000000000000000001 kilograms in an area about the size of an average person. Yet this substance is thought to make up about 70% of the energy in the universe. This is due to the fact that even what we consider empty space would be full of the stuff. And as the universe continues to expand, this energy density remains the same everywhere. So over time, this percentage will continue to rise.

The energy inherent to empty space has been experimentally proven to exist. The famous Casimir experiment took two plates, and found that they would be pushed together in a vacuum if they were only a few nanometers apart. This is thought to be from the force of virtual particles coming in contact with the outside of the plates. Yet on the inside, there is not enough room for these particles to exert their force. So the plates will experience a inward pressure from empty space.

The Casimir Effect.


Cosmological Constant.

During his work on general relativity, Einstein did not like that his equations produced a dynamic universe. As a man of god, Einstein wanted his universe to be static, and unchanging. To this end he added a cosmological constant to his equations. This constant added in a force that represented the mass of empty space, however, this actually was found to be unstable. If the universe were to expand, this would release energy, and the universe would expand more. If the opposite were to happen, then it would contract.

This so called mistake, was to Einstein, his greatest blunder. But today scientists are using this to try and prove that it is in fact an inherent part of our universe. That would mean that Einstein was right, again, even when he thought he was wrong!


Mysterious Energy.

The term "dark energy", I think, is a bit of a misnomer. We do not know enough about this force to give it a name. But I guess we have to call it something, and dark energy will do for now.

Ever since the discovery that the universe is not only expanding, and speeding up this expansion, scientists have been searching for the cause. The entire universe is based on cause, and effect. We observe this effect everyday, and assume that it will continue this way.

If the universe continues to exponentially expand, then in the future there will be a time that the observable universe will just be our own galaxy. This is a terrible thought. If somehow the knowledge of our universe is lost in the future, then people will be even more puzzled by their place in it. Not knowing that there are billions of galaxies out there with billions of stars. The universe would become a small place with no beginning, and an uncertain end.

What do you think?



    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)