ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The National Cryptologic Museum

Updated on December 8, 2018
Click thumbnail to view full-size
The National Security Agency HeadquartersExhibit about the shootdown of the C-130, tail number 60528.Colorized photo of a gun camera image of the 60528 being shot down.The USS Pueblo exhibit.The USS Pueblo exhibit including a map of where it was attacked.Part of the USS Pueblo exhibit.Photograph of the USS Pueblo crew in Hawaii after their release.A piece of the U-2 Frances Gary Powers was flying when a Soviet SAM shot him down.Photo of the holiday ensign from the USS Liberty being raised at The National Cryptologic Museum.  The ensign is behind the picture.The USS Liberty ExhibitThe ensign the USS Liberty was flying when it was attacked by Israeli torpedo boats.A plaque with the names of those killed on the USS Liberty.Items of the USS Liberty's captain, Commander William McGonagle, including his Medal of Honor and citation.An memorial wall to those who died in cryptologic service.An Imperial Japanese Navy encryption machine.A machine used to decrypt the Japanese Navy's encrypted messages.The VERONA exhibit.The VERONA exhibitA reproduction of a gift from Soviet children to the United States.A replica of the bug in the Great Seal gift from Soviet children.  A working Enigma machine.The Enigma machine's nemesis.
The National Security Agency Headquarters
The National Security Agency Headquarters | Source
Exhibit about the shootdown of the C-130, tail number 60528.
Exhibit about the shootdown of the C-130, tail number 60528. | Source
Colorized photo of a gun camera image of the 60528 being shot down.
Colorized photo of a gun camera image of the 60528 being shot down. | Source
The USS Pueblo exhibit.
The USS Pueblo exhibit. | Source
The USS Pueblo exhibit including a map of where it was attacked.
The USS Pueblo exhibit including a map of where it was attacked. | Source
Part of the USS Pueblo exhibit.
Part of the USS Pueblo exhibit. | Source
Photograph of the USS Pueblo crew in Hawaii after their release.
Photograph of the USS Pueblo crew in Hawaii after their release. | Source
A piece of the U-2 Frances Gary Powers was flying when a Soviet SAM shot him down.
A piece of the U-2 Frances Gary Powers was flying when a Soviet SAM shot him down. | Source
Photo of the holiday ensign from the USS Liberty being raised at The National Cryptologic Museum.  The ensign is behind the picture.
Photo of the holiday ensign from the USS Liberty being raised at The National Cryptologic Museum. The ensign is behind the picture. | Source
The USS Liberty Exhibit
The USS Liberty Exhibit | Source
The ensign the USS Liberty was flying when it was attacked by Israeli torpedo boats.
The ensign the USS Liberty was flying when it was attacked by Israeli torpedo boats. | Source
A plaque with the names of those killed on the USS Liberty.
A plaque with the names of those killed on the USS Liberty. | Source
Items of the USS Liberty's captain, Commander William McGonagle, including his Medal of Honor and citation.
Items of the USS Liberty's captain, Commander William McGonagle, including his Medal of Honor and citation. | Source
An memorial wall to those who died in cryptologic service.
An memorial wall to those who died in cryptologic service. | Source
An Imperial Japanese Navy encryption machine.
An Imperial Japanese Navy encryption machine. | Source
A machine used to decrypt the Japanese Navy's encrypted messages.
A machine used to decrypt the Japanese Navy's encrypted messages. | Source
The VERONA exhibit.
The VERONA exhibit. | Source
The VERONA exhibit
The VERONA exhibit | Source
A reproduction of a gift from Soviet children to the United States.
A reproduction of a gift from Soviet children to the United States. | Source
A replica of the bug in the Great Seal gift from Soviet children.
A replica of the bug in the Great Seal gift from Soviet children. | Source
A working Enigma machine.
A working Enigma machine. | Source
The Enigma machine's nemesis.
The Enigma machine's nemesis. | Source

Basic Information

The National Cryptologic Museum, located in Annapolis Junction, is in the shadow of the National Security Agency building. It houses the cryptologic history, which spans the history of the United States. This museum adds another dimension to the history of the United States. Admission is free. The Museum hours are 9:00am – 4:00pm, Monday – Friday. It is also open on the first and third Saturday of each month from 10:00am – 2:00pm. It is closed on Federal Holidays.[i] There is the National Vigilance Park next to the Museum that is scheduled to reopen in 2021-22.[ii]


[i] National Cryptologic Museum Hours of Operation website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/hours/, last accessed 12/8/2019.

[ii] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/, last accessed 11/4/2018

The Exhibits

The museum illustrates governments aren’t the only ones to use cryptology. A small exhibit tells of the origin of the term “hobo” and shows the codes hobos used to use to pass on information to each other.

During the American Revolutionary War both sides used many forms of cryptology. In America Benedict Arnold is synonymous with traitor. American forces captured British Major John André and found letters, written by Benedict Arnold, that outlined how to capture West Point inside his stockings. Benedict Arnold got away but West Point stayed in American hands. The Continental army hanged Major André on October 2, 1780.

The American Civil War presented a challenge with signal flags. Signal flags are visible to both sides. Since many who joined the Confederacy were recently in the American Army both sides needed to come up with new codes. At the decisive point in the decisive Battle of Gettysburg a Union signaling post played a pivotal role in the battle. The signaling post probably didn’t play a significant role by what the soldiers at the post did. Its mere presence played a significant role. On July 2, 1863 General James Longstreet was leading an advance against a strategic point named Little Round Top. He spotted the signaling post and took a longer route to avoid being spotted by the signaling post. This delayed the advance and Union forces won the day. There were about 9,000 casualties on each side.[i]

The United States Army began using a Native American language, Choctaw, as a code in World War I. On October 26, 1918 the U.S. launched a surprise attack against the Germans. The Americans achieved complete surprise thanks to using Choctaw code talkers. In World War II the U.S. Army used code talkers of many Native American tribes including; Comanche, Choctaw, Kiowa, Winnebago, Seminole, Navajo, Hopi, and Cherokee. The Marine Corps exclusively used Navajo.[ii] As with most codes the code talkers used a code within a code. This way if a code talker was captured, one was captured during World War II, the enemy still wouldn’t know what the code talkers were talking about. For example: “hummingbird” meant “fighter plane”, “potato” meant “grenade”, “ground boiler” meant “rocket”.[iii]

German unrestricted U-Boat warfare in World War I turned the U.S. against Germany. What caused the U.S. to enter the war was the Zimmermann Telegram. German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann sent a coded telegram through the German ambassador in Washington DC to the German ambassador in Mexico City asking Mexico to go to war against America. Mexico had no intention of starting a war with the United States. This ridiculous proposal would have been meaningless. The British intercepted and decoded the message. They showed the message to the United States. This forced President Woodrow Wilson’s hand. He asked Congress to declare war on Germany. Congress declared war on Germany and the U.S. entered The Great War. A single decoded message changed the course of history. The Museum’s World War I exhibit highlights this episode.

The United States broke the Japanese diplomatic code before World War II. From the decrypting of Japanese diplomatic messages, they learned the three Axis powers were obliged to support each other in any war regardless of circumstances. One of the messages decrypted was the 14-part message sent to the Japanese embassy in Washington DC that told the Japanese ambassador to break diplomatic relations with the United States at 1:00 p.m. Washington, DC time on December 7, 1941.[iv] Thanks to Japanese Vice Admiral Hiroaki Abe, the Japanese Naval attaché in Berlin, the allies learned much about German deployments and defenses. He sent detailed reports to Japan via a 97 Siki Inziki cryptographic machine. The allies intercepted these messages and decrypted them.[v] The allied didn’t get a copy of a 97 Siki Inziki until they found one in the ruins of the Japanese embassy in Berlin. A copy of this cryptographic machine and of the machine used to decrypt the messages is on display at the museum.

Another exhibit is about the Battle of Midway. In 1942 Japan was planning to capture Midway Island. The American Navy were able to decode some of the Japanese Fleet Code, the JN-25B code. The American Navy knew the Japanese were going to launch an attack but they didn’t know where. They suspected the target might be Midway Island. The Navy had the garrison at Midway Island send a message claiming their fresh water condenser had broken down. The message asked for a shipment of some parts and fresh water. The Japanese intelligence passed on this information. This confirmed the invasion force was going to attack Midway Island. The American Navy sent a task force that included three aircraft carriers. The U.S. Navy won decisively. This marked the turning point of the war in the Pacific.[vi]

The museum has one of the few working examples of a German Enigma machine. This cypher machine was initially intended for banks and other commercial uses. It was a commercial failure but the German military thought it would be a great way to send secure communications. On paper it seemed an impossible code to break. With mathematical genius and courage on the Allied side and with some blunders on the German side the Allies broke the code. The German Army and Air Force believed their code was unbreakable but the German Navy was suspicious. The German Navy added another rotor to their Enigma machine. The U.S. Navy added another set of rotors to their decryption machine and soon the Allies were able to track German U-Boats. The museum also has an example of the U.S. Navy decryption device on display.

One way the Germans helped the Allies in code breaking was by having a weather station in the middle of the North African desert. This weather station would dutifully report each day, “Nothing significant to report.” By assuming this was what the German station was reporting the Allied decoders’ task was much simpler.

The 2000 movie U-571 was about a group of American submariners who captured the U-Boat, U-571, to get its Enigma cipher. This movie had little to do with reality.[vii] RAF Squadron Leader James Thompson damaged and captured the U-570 on August 27, 1941.[viii] Destroyers damaged the U-559 on October 30, 1942[ix]. The submarine surfaced and the crew abandoned ship without scuttling it. Royal Navy Lieutenant Anthony Fasson, with Able Seaman Colin Grazier and NAFFI canteen assistant Tommy Brown voluntarily went into the sinking U-Boat and recovered its Enigma key setting sheets and other classified information. When the U-559 went down it took Lieutenant Fasson and Seaman Grazier with her. Fasson and Grazier were posthumously awarded the George Cross. Brown was awarded the George Medal. The information they received enabled the British to read traffic to and from the German U-Boats.

Breaking the enemy’s codes was only part of the intelligence battle. Another part is to not let the enemy know what you know. The Allies went through great efforts to successfully keep the Axis from knowing their codes had been broken. An example is when learning the Germans were sending a supply convoy to North Africa the British wouldn’t just send an attack force against the convoy. They would have one of the aircraft reconnaissance missions fly over the area of the supply convoy. The reconnaissance aircraft would return with information on the convoy and the Royal Navy and Air Force would attack the convoy. The Germans would assume it was bad luck a reconnaissance aircraft spotted them. The reconnaissance crew, if captured, wouldn’t know the patrol area was a result of a broken code.

The Enigma, as is usually the case in the intelligence community, is famous because it was a failure. It’s U.S. Army counterpart, SIGBA, was a complete success and little known. SIGBA was the only machine cipher system that was unbroken by an enemy. The Germans never broke the code and the Japanese gave up trying. Frank Rowlett developed the machine’s complex stepping motion that made it appear random.[x]

The Trojan Horse was a legend from ancient times. It gave birth to the saying, “Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.” On August 4, 1945, with the war in Europe over and with the Soviet Union obliged by treaty to enter the war against Japan, Soviet school children gave a gift to U.S. Ambassador Averell Harriman. It was a beautiful carving of the Great Seal of the United States. Ambassador Harriman hung it in the ambassador’s Moscow residential office. It remained there until 1952 when the U.S. State Department discovered it was “bugged”.[xi] A replica of this device is on display at the museum.

In February 1943 the U.S. Army’s Signal Intelligence Service started the VENONA program. The program was to examine encrypted Soviet diplomatic communications. The museum has an exhibit on the VENONA program that includes American citizens who supplied information to the Soviet KGB. These include Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who were convicted of treason and executed.[xii]

Cryptologic history rarely involves violence. There are a few incidents that involved violence. The museum highlights these incidents. On September 2, 1958 a C-130, tail number 60528, went off on a mission to fly in a “race track” pattern parallel to the Turkish-Soviet Armenian border. It flew into Soviet airspace for reasons unknown. Soviet Air Force MiG-17s shot down the C-130, killing all its 17 crew members. The Soviet Union denied shooting the C-130 down. After the fall of the Soviet Union the Russians admitted Soviet fighters shot down the aircraft. Russia also released gun camera footage of the shootdown. The museum has a colorized picture of the shootdown.[xiii]

On May 1, 1960 civilian contractor for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Gary Powers, was flying a U-2 over Soviet airspace. His engine flamed out and he was unable to restart it. The U-2 lost 43,000 feet in altitude.[xiv] This brought Powers’ aircraft within the range of Soviet Surface to air missiles (SAMs). A SAM shot down the U-2. Powers ejected safely and was captured by the Soviets. The Soviets also recovered the U-2’s wreckage. The fallout from this incident was the cancellation of a scheduled summit between President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Premier Nikita Khrushchev. After the fall of the Soviet Union the Armed Forces Museum in Moscow gave a piece of the U-2 to the National Cryptologic Museum. This artifact is on display at the museum.[xv]

The greatest loss of life in a single event in American cryptologic history occurred on June 8, 1967. The USS Liberty was sailing in the Mediterranean Sea in international waters. It was 25 miles from the Gaza coast where Israeli and Egyptian forces were fighting in was has since been named The Six Day War. It was a clear afternoon. Without provocation Israeli fighters attacked the ship with bombs, missiles, and cannon fire. Later Israeli torpedo boats attacked the stricken vessel. When the attacks were over 34 of the USS Liberty crew were dead and 173 were wounded.[xvi] Among the wounded were the ship’s captain, Commander William McGonagle. He was awarded the Medal of Honor. Among the dead were Lieutenant Commander Philip McCutcheon Armstrong, Jr. and QM3 Francis Brown. They were both posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. The USS Liberty was the most decorated U.S. Navy ship for a single incident. The Israeli Preliminary Inquiry by Sgan-Aluf I. Yenushalmi[xvii] and a report by Israeli Colonel Ram Ron[xviii] claimed those attacking the ship saw no flag prior to attacking. Both reports claimed the attacks ceased when a “small” American flag was spotted. The reports differed on who claimed to have seen the “small” flag. The Israeli fighters shredded the American flag the USS Liberty was flying prior to their attacks. When the Israeli torpedo boats attacked the USS Liberty was flying a holiday ensign, which is larger than the flag normally flown on American ships. The museum’s web site states “…the reason for the attack has never been fully resolved…”.[xix] The United States accepted Israel’s apology. Israel paid over $6 million in restitution to the families of those killed and wounded in 1968. Israeli paid an additional $6 million in 1980 under an agreement where Israel and the United States were “not to address the issue of motive or reopen the case for any reason.”[xx] When the Cryptologic Museum opened an honor guard raised the USS Liberty’s flag on the museum’s flag pole. The museum had the USS Liberty’s flag on display.

January 23, 1968 gave evidence the U.S. Navy learned little from what happened to the USS Liberty. The USS Pueblo (AGER-2) was sailing alone off the coast of North Korea. The U.S. Navy believed sailing under the U.S. flag and in international waters was enough protection for the intelligence gathering ship. North Korean boats captured the USS Pueblo and its crew. North Korean fire killed Fireman Duane Hodges.[xxi] The North Koreans held the crew captive for 11 months. The U.S. signed a confession to secure the crew’s release. The USS Pueblo, still listed by the U.S. Navy as in commission, is on display next to North Korea’s Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum. The U.S. Navy decommissioned the other AGER ships, USS Banner and USS Palm Beach, after the USS Pueblo incident. The museum has a picture of the crew taken after the crew returned to the United States.

The National Security Agency was at the forefront of the computer age. In 1962 an IBM second-generation computer, HARVEST, went online at NSA. The computer had a number of innovative features. It had a speaker which would tap out the program it was running in Morse code. The most fascinating feature was HARVEST hung its own computer tapes. This was done by a tractor that would select the needed tape and load it to one of the computer’s two tape drives. HARVEST remained in service until 1976.

The NSA was the first customer to receive the Cray supercomputer. The museum has two Crays on display. One is an XMP-24, an upgrade to the original XMP-22. This XMP-24 was in service from 1983 to 1993. It’s replacement, the YMP, is also on display. The YMP served from 1993 to 2000.

[i] History.com, Battle of Gettysburg, https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/battle-of-gettysburg, last accessed 10/20/2018.

[ii] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits, last accessed 11/4/2018.

[iii] The Navajo Code Talkers, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=llkDsIrhY1Y, last accessed, 10/20/2018.

[iv] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits, last accessed 11/4/2018.

[v] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/center-cryptologic-history/pearl-harbor-review/early-japanese/, last accessed 10/25/2018.

[vi] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#battle_of_midway, last accessed 11/1/2018.

[vii] The U-571 was sunk on January 28, 1944. Axis Submarines by Anthony J. Watts, © 1977.

[viii] The Royal Navy subsequently reflagged the ship as the RN Graph. Axis Submarines by Anthony J. Watts, © 1977.

[ix] Axis Submarines by Anthony J. Watts, © 1977.

[x] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#bombe, last accessed 11/4/2018.

[xi] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#great_seal, last accessed 11/4/2018.

[xii] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#great_seal, last accessed 11/4/2018.

[xiii] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#c130, last assedded 11/11/2018.

[xiv] Arsenal of Democracy, by Tom Gervasi, © 1977 by Tom Gervasi and Bob Adelman.

[xv] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#u2_incident, last accessed 11/11/2018.

[xvi] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#uss_liberty, last accessed 11/18/2018.

[xvii] NSA Site, https://www.nsa.gov/Portals/70/documents/news-features/declassified-documents/uss-liberty/state-dept-correspondence/preliminary_inquiry.pdf, last accessed 11/17/2018.

[xviii] Colonel Ram Ron Report 6/16/1967, http://www.gtr5.com/evidence/ramron.htm, last accessed 11/17/2018.

[xix] National Cryptologic Museum website, https://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic-heritage/museum/exhibits/#uss_liberty, last accessed 11/18/2018.

[xx] Jewish Virtual Library, https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/quot-the-uss-liberty-case-closed-quot, last accessed 11/18/2018. Original source, U.S. Department of State Bulletin, vol. lviii, no. 1512, June 17, 1968, and vol. lx, no. 1562, June 2, 1969, and U.S. Department of State Daily News Briefing, DPC 2451.

[xxi] USS Pueblo web site, http://www.usspueblo.org/Pueblo_Incident/January_23.html, last accessed 10/26/2018.

Closing Thoughts

The Museum’s gift shop is unremarkable. There were many items that had the NSA logo. It doesn’t have any of the humorous items those in the Cryptologic business sometimes sport. This is understandable. This museum is a good way to get a better understanding of history and how the intelligence business works.

© 2018 Robert Sacchi

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      2 months ago

      A friend and I researched for an article once. We found most people had an ax to grind. Digging a bit deeper I found a museum that went way over the line with one of its artifacts. While everyone has an opinion if someone has an obvious agenda, other than presenting honestly, then it's best to look for independent confirmation.

    • Au fait profile image

      C E Clark 

      2 months ago from North Texas

      I thought things were bad when it comes to our population's history literacy, but if even the professor doesn't know what s/he is talking about, what hope do we have? History isn't the only thing that is being neglected in our society. All added together, it's a wonder any of our population can tie their own shoes.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      2 months ago

      Thank you for reading and commenting. The intelligence side of history is like a parallel history.

      My son took an American History course in college. The professor talked about a couple of things I was intimately familiar with that I knew what he was saying was misleading and dead wrong.

    • Au fait profile image

      C E Clark 

      2 months ago from North Texas

      This article covers so many important American historical things that have happened over the years. While I'm no authority on history, I think it's a shame that so many people in this country know even less than I do about our history.

      I had several classes in history and I love to read about parts of it, like the Native American code talkers, for example.

      It's sad that so many people don't even know what our Civil War was or who won it! They don't know what year the Revolutionary War was fought much less who our opponents were. Some people really believe we won our freedom and independence from China or Russia! I don't think they teach history in our public schools anymore. :(

      Excellent article as always.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      3 months ago

      Washington, DC has a spy museum. There is an entrance fee for the Spy Museum. The Cryptologic Museum is free. It is one of those museums that is a little out of the way so not too many people know about it or have the opportunity to visit it. I view this as one of the advantages of HubPages. Hubbers can post articles about museums and other places of interest that people otherwise wouldn't know exist.

    • alocsin profile image

      Aurelio Locsin 

      3 months ago from Orange County, CA

      Wow, I wish I had known about this museum when we visited DC. It would've been an experience to go.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      4 months ago

      That seems more an Urban Legend from a joke out of Bletchley Park. The Kreigsmarine got suspicious their code might be compromised. The Luftwaffe and Army were in full denial. They didn't know their unbreakable code was completely broken until long after the war.

    • lawrence01 profile image

      Lawrence Hebb 

      4 months ago from Hamilton, New Zealand

      Robert

      This was fascinating. One thing about enigma was Bletchley Park got so good at decoding them there was a joke among the German high command later in the war.

      If they didn't understand their orders the best thing was to call Bletchley Park who could tell them what the orders were!

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      5 months ago

      Hope you find time to do this and many other things in 2019. Also that you have time to write about them.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 

      5 months ago from USA

      Excellent article! I’ve wanted to visit this museum for several years but it’s a couple hours away from me and it never happened. Your description of all the crypto situations in history inspires me to find the time this spring now that my schedule is more flexible.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      5 months ago

      Yes, it would be, especially since it's right down the road from me. They do have the National Spy Museum in DC, but there is an entrance fee.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      5 months ago from Houston, Texas

      Perhaps someday the CIA will do that and make it available to John Q. Public. That would be nice.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      5 months ago

      The CIA could have a museum in another building as the NSA did.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      5 months ago from Houston, Texas

      It makes sense that the CIA building would not be open to the public. In reading Liz's comment, I hope that she does write a post about that museum in her area where decoding was done. It is always interesting learning about history.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      5 months ago

      I will be looking forward to reading it.

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      5 months ago from UK

      Yes. There is a museum at Bletchley Park. Developers at one time wanted to build houses there. Thankfully this did not happen. The original house and huts where the decoding took place have been preserved as a museum. When I have time, hopefully one day I will get a chance to write a hub about our visit there.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      5 months ago

      Thank you both for reading and commenting.

      Liz, do you know if they have a similar museum near Bletchley Park or anywhere else in the UK? The tour guide panned the movie U-571 because of its gross inaccuracies and depicting it as an American operation.

      Peggy, what is especially nice is they house it outside of the NSA building so it is open to the public. The CIA has theirs inside the CIA building so it's closed to the public.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      5 months ago from Houston, Texas

      It is so nice that the museum does not charge an admission fee. There is so much to learn from visiting museums like this. Thanks for writing about the history of cryptology and how it has been used for so many years in so many instances. It must be fascinating to be able to visit the museum in person.

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      5 months ago from UK

      Having recently visited Bletchley Park in the UK, where the German enigma code was broken in World War II, I have read your article with great interest.

    • Robert Sacchi profile imageAUTHOR

      Robert Sacchi 

      5 months ago

      NSA always tries to be low key. In the old days the joke was NSA stands for No Such Agency.

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 

      5 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      This is so interesting after watching movies on the coders. I was not aware the existence of this museum. I have to put this in my list of places to visit.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)