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The Quantum God

Updated on January 10, 2015

From the early days of exploring the very small, we have found an increasingly weird reality.

The basic idea that there is energy in the vacuum, was proven when the Casimir effect was demonstrated experimentally.
The basic idea that there is energy in the vacuum, was proven when the Casimir effect was demonstrated experimentally.
The energy of the vacuum was used to move this extremely tiny sphere.
The energy of the vacuum was used to move this extremely tiny sphere.
The net force of the vacuum is higher on the regions where the large arrows point. There is less force between these plates which causes them to move together. Could this be the elusive quantum gravity?
The net force of the vacuum is higher on the regions where the large arrows point. There is less force between these plates which causes them to move together. Could this be the elusive quantum gravity?
Further weirdness emerges from the double slit experiment. Various methods of doing the experiment have raised more questions than they answered.
Further weirdness emerges from the double slit experiment. Various methods of doing the experiment have raised more questions than they answered.
This spray of exotic particles from a collider shows a myriad of reactions to the electromagnetic field.
This spray of exotic particles from a collider shows a myriad of reactions to the electromagnetic field.
These are various patterns for the electron cloud for hydrogen, More complex elements have more complex patterns.
These are various patterns for the electron cloud for hydrogen, More complex elements have more complex patterns.
This is one of the tools used to explore the quantum. It is the accelerator at the LH C in Switzerland.
This is one of the tools used to explore the quantum. It is the accelerator at the LH C in Switzerland.

Discrete Self-Affine Manifestation and Quantum Gravity

On all levels, the truth of discrete quantum function makes itself increasingly apparent. This touches all levels of reality. Whether we talk of the quantum probability wave function, matter, energy, gravity or time, it all appears to be quantized in a discrete manner. Further, all fundamental forces seem to manifest in a way where they are paired in such a way as to be right angle polarized, being manifestations of electromagnetic radiation. Turning our gaze to the macro world of our experience, we see discrete manifestation occurring here as well. Discrete manifestation takes the form of resonant sorting, self-affine cratering and individualization. God it appears is fractal, self-affine and discrete in nature. What God means before delving much further, is the sum of nature, the cosmos seen and cosmos that is still unknown. Clearly nature cannot be fully defined as we are still discovering things and that what we do know cannot be fully explained even with mathematics due to the sheer complexity of all the variables involved. Mathematical descriptions of the cosmos must tally with observation completely to make an accurate theory. Owing to the complexity and difficulty of the math, we rely on intuition to a great extent to define the inexplicable that has been revealed to us. We must also realize that there is controversy even today over such things as the gravitational constant and Boltzmann’s constant. The hypothesis expounded below thus rests on an uncertain and shaky foundation, but it does explain how the cosmos works from the quantum level up to multi-galactic superstructures.

New discoveries almost on a daily basis reveal a complex and self-affine cosmos on all levels, no matter which part is explored. Recent findings on the quantum discrete nature of gravity and its relation to virtual particles promise to bring a unity to seeming contrary theories of nature, that is, relativity and quantum physics. A Grand Unified Theory is now within our grasp. Gravity turns out to be a result of virtual and real particle interaction, which will be further detailed below. Some of this has already been touched on with the findings of cosmic non-locality otherwise known as quantum entanglement. Here are some other findings described in the words of the researchers.

“…researchers, led by Valery Nesvizhevsky at the Laue-Langevin Institute in Grenoble, France, isolated hundreds of neutrons from all major effects except gravity, then watched them in a special detector as gravity pulled them down. It was not a smooth fall. As expected, the neutrons fell in quantum jumps. ‘The work of Nesvizhevsky and colleagues could provide physicists with a new probe of the fundamental properties of matter,’ writes Thomas Bowles of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in an accompanying analysis in Nature. Bowles said the new observational technique might allow scientists to figure out why quantum mechanics is at odds with Einstein's theory of general relativity, which describes how gravity treats large objects in the universe. It might even solve a most elusive goal in helping researchers understand out what actually creates gravity, he said.”

“Researchers have persuaded a force, called the Casimir effect, to slide tiny gold plates past each other. "This should help us exploit this fundamental force on a tiny scale," says Umar Mohideen, a physicist at UC, Riverside. The Casimir effect depends on the fact that on tiny scales, empty space isn't empty at all. Even a total vacuum is filled with a quantum froth of virtual particles that pop in and out of existence. They don't last long enough for us to detect them directly, but in 1948, Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir predicted that if you put two parallel plates close enough together so the largest particles can't squeeze into the gap, then the net pressure from the extra particles outside would push the plates together. It took until 1996 for physicists to measure the effect directly demonstrating that bizarre quantum action can affect large scale objects in the "real world." But pushing plates together isn't much use to anyone, and the effect even threatens to jam up moving parts in micromachines. Then, in 1997, MIT physicist Mehran Kardar discovered the shape of the plates could have a startling effect. The Casimir force always acts perpendicular to the plane of the plate, so he reasoned that using corrugated plates should persuade the force to move them sideways past each other. Mohideen and his team announced they had measured this lateral force. They placed two corrugated gold plates a few hundred nanometers apart with their peaks and troughs aligned. When they moved the plates slightly out of alignment, they detected a force of a few piconewtons that pushed them back into position. At this point, you don't get out any more energy than you put in, but it's the first time that virtual particles have been cajoled into doing work in this way. The researchers are now trying to generate other effects such as a repulsive force and a dynamic Casimir effect that moves plates back and forth. The team's measurements could also pick up signs of other as yet undiscovered fundamental forces, as well as evidence of extra spatial dimensions that some theorists predict are curled up on a tiny scale. "We should be able to place limits on the size of these effects," says Mohideen.

These are important findings and should be pursued further. It describes that gravitational effects are also subject to the probability wave function of quantum mechanics. We approach an era where gravity can be controlled like magnetism and electricity are today. This finding also suggests that gravity is part of a bipolar force like electricity and magnetism, the strong and weak nuclear forces. Further, gravity results from the interaction of virtual particles on real particles in the cosmos, pushing them together when they happen to be at distances described above. Then there are the unexpected results that occur from the design of materials. This may account for the ‘lumpy’ cosmic structure that is so apparent today. These forces can also describe why crystals form in the way they do, especially if they are constructed of more than one element like common salt and silicon dioxide. When enough particles get together in this manner, forming 3D or flat crystals, the quantum gravitational process is enhanced. This process can occur even though the parts being thus pushed together are electro-statically neutral. At a certain point, electrostatic influences take over to collect these pieces into fluffy aggregates. This occurs in a magnetic field and/or near an active star such as T-Tauri or Fu Orionus types. When these masses reach a certain size, then the gravitational influence we are so familiar with takes over on a more massive scale. The process is the same only we’re looking at an astronomical quantity of virtual particle pair real particle interaction. When a large body becomes compact enough, virtual particles can only form freely in the vacuum around it. Inside the body, they interact with matter directly and their influence is negated. The threshold size appears to be 100 Km. More importantly, when vast distances are involved, the same action pushes matter apart. This is due to the fact that between clumps of matter, like galaxies, there is more mass in virtual particles at a given moment than real mass. This virtual mass forces matter apart at great distances in the same way that quantum sized particles are shoved together at quantum distances due to the fact that virtual particles can’t manifest freely between them without interacting with matter, but can everywhere else.

The Quantum jumping can cause the movement of real particles due to the interaction of real particles with a virtual antiparticle counterpart. When both are annihilated, the remaining virtual particle from the virtual pair becomes real and takes the spot of the lost real particle. This is accomplished in quantum jumps due to the nature of virtual particle formation. The jumps are typically random, but can be directed as in the experiments described above and during quantum gravitational accumulation. When quantum gravitational accumulation becomes great enough, planets, stars, black holes and galaxies are formed. At these levels, relativistic effects are apparent as also demonstrated by experiment. At the foundation, quantum effects end up curving space-time. This too can be exploited. Experiments in this direction are only just beginning. In the cosmos at large, this kind of thing is what lies at the root of Hawking radiation that causes black holes to lose mass.

The vacuum of space is an extremely energetic place. According to the calculations, the energy contained in the vacuum far exceeds anything else that has been measured. The vacuum vibrates at an astounding 10^43 hertz; that's 10 followed by 43 zeros. This kind of energy is far out of the reach of mankind and it's not likely we will reach such energy in large quantities for a sustained period of a very long time. We can manage gamma rays that are far less energetic than this, but even this requires massive technology such as the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. Yet, this is the kind of energy from which manifestation of energy and matter arises. Matter and energy at this level are two aspects of the same thing that is neither one nor the other, yet both. At the basis of this is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle that tells us that we can never be certain of both position and momentum at the same time. When we take one measurement, we destroy the possibility of knowing the other. This observation has become know as the collapsing the wave function and creates manifestation according to how something is observed. Prior to this test, the state of something is described as an uncollapsed wave function that is neither in a specific location, nor has a definite momentum, existing in a kind of twilight world between existence and non-existence; energy and matter. Quantum physics takes on strange and counter-intuitive characteristics.

Experiments with muons at Livermore suggest that the current understanding of the cosmos has to be revised and that it is flawed and incomplete. Scientists there are now 99 percent convinced that the current model and paradigm is incorrect. As they state, muons are fundamental particles that are not further divisible. They are high mass particles with a half-life of 300 hours and can decay into electron positron pairs, photons or neutrinos. Accelerated at at 99.94% the speed of light, they behave in ways that demonstrate that current understanding of the cosmos is in need of revision.

Virtual particle pairs are formed at all times spontaneously from the Planck quantum false vacuum. Their existence for the most part is so brief as to go undetected. Under the right conditions, they can be teased apart and take on a real existence in space-time. It is this circumstance that allows for the “creation” and collection of antimatter. Stephen Hawking has used this to explain the radiation coming from black holes and black hole evaporation. Virtual particle play a major part in the shaping of the cosmos in other areas as well.

Self-affine manifestation is occurring all the time with prodigious production of virtual particle pairs, usually in the form of electron/positron, proton/anti-proton and neutron/anti-neutron pairs. Often more exotic particles appear like Muons, W and Z particles. The virtual particles can be teased apart under the right circumstances and collected in magnetic containment bottles built to collect antimatter. The real particle part is allowed to escape. In the experiments described above, there may result a way to efficiently collect antimatter. In the context of accelerators like CERN, SLAC, Fermi Lab, the LHC and others, electron-positron pairs are routinely produced in particle collisions at near light velocity. Pictures taken of reaction show matter and anti-matter spiralling in opposite directions in an intense magnetic field that are the result of such a collision that produces a spray of electrons and positrons. These however, are produced from a nucleus of a target atom rather than from the quantum foam, which would require vastly greater energies. What is proven is that positrons do exist and can manifest alongside electrons in the right circumstances.

Quantum gravity acting out of the false vacuum state and resulting quantum foam can explain;

1. The strange effects described above and the “attraction” between neutral particles and atoms on the quantum level, whether just basic accretion or crystal formation. This can occur in a high vacuum and near absolute zero as other experiments suggest. In fact, at absolute zero, it has been demonstrated that groups of atoms combine into what is known as a Bose-Einstein condensate, where atoms lose their individuality and combine into a super fluid state of existence. Atoms in this state can self-interfere as readily as individual photons. Self interference has been demonstrated with experiments involving double slits. All manner of energy and matter has been put to these experiments with similar results.

2. The existence of “dark matter” that strongly influences the visible matter of the cosmos. Again, self-interference suggests that we can’t even see half of what is really there due to self-cancellation. New ideas and observations concerning dark matter and dark energy suggest that what we see amounts to only three percent of what is actually there.

3. The existence of “negative energy” that causes weird effects and can account for situations that appears to defy the second law of thermodynamics.

4. The overall local contraction and accelerating expansion of space in the cosmos on far reaching levels. The formation of a foamy structure to the large-scale cosmos that is self-affine to the quantum foam.

5. The apparent existence of stars older than the cosmos.

6. The existence of multiple universes along differing lines of physical laws. Of such, Stephen Hawking has much to say. These exist in an infinite stretch of virtual or imaginary space-time. Our cosmos may be one half of a mirror anti-matter cosmos that we cannot see due to the nature of space-time in our region that allows us to see only the matter part of the whole structure. As space and time are inextricably bound as one, quantum time generated by the interaction of virtual particles with real ones creates the general state of vector mass on both parts, the universe we are familiar with and its counterpart, the anti-universe to coin a term. It is this that works to create the mass aspect of quantum gravity.

7. The macro gravitational effects in Newtonian and Einsteinian mechanics including tidal interactions and complex orbital dynamics.

8. Gravity on all levels results from the interaction of dark matter and so called negative or dark energy upon visible matter and positive energy. The visible parts form only a small part of the whole.

9. The existence of quantum gravity erases the idea of uncertainty as far as actions it creates where real particles are concerned. The only uncertainty remaining is the time of manifestation of virtual particles creating the so-called negative energy field via the action of dark matter on real space-time matter and energy. The action created by virtual particles on the real cosmos is not uncertain at all. As far as uncertainty is concerned in the realm of real particles, this still remains insofar as non-locality is ignored. In the new understanding of gravity, there is uncertainty about the gravitational constant. What is now required is a measure of a discrete quantum gravitation constant of the force required by virtual particle manifestation on a pair of non-ionized hydrogen atoms.

10. The action of virtual particles on real matter acts as a connection between local space-time condition, limitations and non-locality. This is perhaps the most difficult point to prove directly.

11. Although not a quantum gravitational effect per se, atomic isotope decay via the interaction of virtual particles on unstable and stable atomic nucleus causing spontaneous emission of alpha, beta or gamma particles and other effects.

The alpha particle results when two protons and two neutrons are emitted by a nucleus. This occurs in unstable nuclei such as in Uranium. A virtual quantum event would be enough to cause the emission.

The beta - type results when a neutron becomes a proton via the emission of an electron. The creation of a positron/electron virtual pair near a nucleus would cause the destruction of the neutron electron by a positron and the virtual electron would become real and free of the nucleus via a method similar to Hawking radiation.

The beta + type results when a proton becomes a neutron via the emission of a positron. The creation of a positron/electron virtual pair near a nucleus would cause the destruction of a proton positron by a virtual electron and release the virtual positron into the real world as a result by a method similar to Hawking radiation

The K capture results when an electron is absorbed by a proton turning it into a neutron. The capture results when a virtual electron/positron pair interferes with the real electron. The leftover virtual electron is now made real and is captured by the proton creating a neutron. This is a reverse of a Hawking radiation type event.

The (n,p) exchange results when a neutron is absorbed and a proton is emitted.

12. The interaction of virtual particles on real particles generates what we call mass as a by-product of their interaction. Mass is thus a vector and has a modulus/direction defined by interactions with virtual particles. Depending on relative velocity, it also achieves a relative scalar. Since mass is a vector, it stands to reason that the relative positions of particles to one another and their direction of movement can create relative mass from zero to the measured value for each type of particle. Mass can only have measure in relation to something else. Mass thus has modulus and scalar components and these can actually be controlled in the macro world to a limited extent. Mass also varies as the square of relative velocity. This is true for all velocities well below that of light. As mass approaches the velocity of light, a more logarithmic function of mass accumulation occurs until at the velocity of light, mass is relatively infinite. Essentially the whole spectrum of mass accumulation is logarithmic. At lower relative velocities, the square function of mass to velocity is a reasonable approximation. The peculiarity arises when we bring in the frame of reference and everything can be derived with reference to different frames of reference. Mass for one object can thus be different for two or more observers with different frames of reference and different relative vectors. An example will suffice: Two people observe a fired bullet. One is standing still in reference to the fired and speedily moving bullet while the other is moving alongside the bullet at the same speed and direction. The bullet could possibly kill the one who is standing still in reference to the moving bullet, whereas the bullet would be harmless to the observer moving in the same vector in both direction and speed.

13. Part of the interaction of virtual particles on matter creates a phenomenon called fractal Brownian motion in four dimensions. Particles in a vacuum will move in random ways even at absolute zero Kelvin. This is a different sort of motion than that caused by high thermo energy between agitated atoms. This sort of interaction may be responsible for the initial input of electromagnetic energy at the moment of cosmic creation.

14. The origin of the “lumpy” structure of the cosmos as now determined by COBE, WMAP and similar experiments. The action of quantum gravity, mimicking the Casimir effect under special circumstances, guarantees a lumpy cosmos from the outset due to induced fractal Brownian motion on the quantum level. This leads to the three conditions that structures sources, sinks and saddles in the later organization of the cosmos, creating voids, super clusters, filaments and sheet structures. The Casimir effect as defined above in the second quote, differs slightly from quantum gravity. The Casimir effect acts in a special modulus in relation to the masses being forced together. Quantum gravity is general in its modulus and acts in a special modulus when fractal Brownian motion causes clumping or separation of masses, which are given that property owing to the interaction of real and virtual particles. In the general sense, quantum gravity can cause convergence or divergence of masses. When and only when mass is arranged as described above, does quantum gravity equal the Casimir effect. It is then that quantum gravity takes on the appearance of the Casimir effect. In all other instances, quantum gravity is a force that manifests for the same reasons, but on a different modulus. This is why mass tends to fall into the curved space-time warp when sufficient quantities accrete due to the accumulating action of quantum gravity up to scales where relativistic effects can be detected. As time is quantized due to recent findings, so is mass as a vector relation to time and quantum gravity. Mass, quantum time and quantum gravity are inextricably linked. Mass is thus also quantized as well as relative. Quantum gravity is not just the Casimir effect, nor is it the Van der Waals force. These are separate situations and the latter deals with slight dipolar charges on molecules that fluctuate in a quantum manner.

15. Masses of fundamental particles, such as Neutrons and Protons change when found in more complex atoms than hydrogen. The sum of the particle mass is less than the individual particles and the difference is thought to be due to the binding energy required by the strong nuclear force. Quantum gravity is not thought to be responsible for this difference.

Based on these findings and the constant probing of atoms, we have determined that the electron cloud exists in a state of uncollapsed probability. The electron(s) appear to rapidly pop in and out of existence at 10^43 times a second due to the interaction with virtual particles. They can thus appear anywhere in unpredictable ways as long as they fall into regions of quantized energy levels. When energy levels change in unpredictable ways, a quanta of energy is released or absorbed according to the photo-electric effect depending on local circumstances and induced influences. The simple hydrogen atom tends to have a simple electron cloud. More complex atoms have lobed clouds that exist in a multitude of discrete "shells". This much we have been able to tease out form experiments and observation.

What the Bleep Do We Know is a popularizer movie on quantum weirdness.


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    • syzygyastro profile image

      William J. Prest 2 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

      I would more accurately describe myself as a perpetual student of physics, cosmology and philosophy.

    • Taranwanderer profile image

      Taranwanderer 2 years ago

      Great hub - are you a physicist? I wrote one too on the Higgs boson -

    • Taranwanderer profile image

      Taranwanderer 3 years ago

      Wow. Good stuff - you must have been an instructor once on particle physics, right? A lot of the pioneers you listed above I hadn't ever heard of so thanks for the info.

    • syzygyastro profile image

      William J. Prest 6 years ago from Vancouver, Canada

      Thanks for the link. I will give your article a read when I connect with it.

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      Lweinberg 6 years ago

      Great article! I'm linking to mine of the same topic.