The Rashtrakuta Dynasty
The Rashtrakutas ruled Deccan from about 753 AD to 973 AD. This dynasty was founded by Dantidurga, who overthrew Kirtivarman, the last king of Chalukyas of Badami. The other important rulers of this dynasty were : Dhruva, Govinda, Indra III, Krishna III and Amoghavarsha. The Rashtrakutas were replaced by the later Chalukyas of Kalyani in 973 AD.
The Rashtrakutas resisted the Arabs and contributed to the growth of architecture and literature. The Kailasa temple at Ellora was built by Krishna I. They patronised Kannada, Prakrit and Apabhramsa. Svayambhu, the great Apabhramsa poet, lived at the Rashtrakuta court. Amoghavarsha wrote Kaviraja Marga during their reign. They showed tolerance by patronizing Saivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism.
The Rashtrakutan administration was based on the Chalukyan style. The empire was divided into Rashtra (province), Visaya and Bhukti. An important feature of the period was the rise of hereditary revenue officers namely, nad-gavundas or desa-gramakutas.
Kings of Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Dantidurga (753-756 A.D.): a Mahasamanta under the Chalukya Vikramaditya - II, defeated the latter's son and successor Kirtivarman - II in the first half of 8th century A.D. and founded Rashtrakuta dynasty with Malkhed or Manyakheta as capital. He was succeeded by his uncle Krishna - I abolit 756 A.D.
Krishna - I (756-775 A.D.): He gave a final blow to the power of Kirtivarman - II of the Chalukyas and forced the Gangas of Mysore and Vishnuvardhana -IV of Vengi to acknowledge his supremacy. His son Govinda - II was dethroned by his younger brother Dhruva - III. in about 780 A.D.
Dhruva (780-792 A.D.): He attacked Pallavas and was successful. He was the first Rashtrakuta king to intervene in the tripartite struggle and defeat Pratihara Vatsaraja and Pala king Dharmapala. After this success he added the emblem of Ganga and Yamuna to his imperial insignia. He was succeeded by Govinda - III.
Govinda - III (792-814): He is one of the greatest rulers of Rashtrakuta dynasty, defeated Pratihara Nagabhatta - II and occupied Maiva, which he assigned to Upendra of the Paramara dynasty. He shattered the confederacy formed by Ganga, Chera, Pandya and Pallava kings against him. He was succeeded by his son Amoghavarsha - I.
Amoghavarsha - I (814-878): He is one of the greatest rulers of Rashtrakuta dynasty. He fought long drawn battles with Gangas and Eastern Chalukyas. He was a poet authored Kavirajamarga, the earliest Kannada work on poetics, and patronized men of letters like 'Jinasena' (author of Adipurana) Mahaviracharya (author of Ganita Sara Samgraha), Saktayana (author of Amoghavritti). He was a great builder and built the city of 'Manyakheta. He was succeeded by his son Krishna - II.
Krishna - II (878-915): He successfully fought against pratihara Bhoja, but Gunaga Vijayaditya of Vengi overran the Rashtrakuta kingdom. He was succeeded by his grandson Indra - III.
Indra - III (915-927): defeated Pratihara king Mahipala - I and plundered his capital Kanauj.
Krishna - III (939-67 A.D.): He defeated Parantaka - I of Chola dynasty and occupied Tondaimandalam and constructed a pillar of victory and a temple at Rameshwaram. By waging wars with all his neighbors and alienating them, he created problems to his successors.
Krishna - III was succeeded by his younger brother Khottiga Amoghavarsha (967 – 972), who was defeated by Paramara Siyak -II in 973 A.D., Khottiga was succeeded by Karka II (972 – 973) and the latter was overthrown by the Chalukya Taila - II in 974 A.D.