ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Real Zombies of Haiti

Updated on September 5, 2015

Folk Myth... or Reality?

According to Haitian folk myth, there are two types of death: natural and unnatural. It is the latter kind which can cause problems. The souls of those taken before their time, most commonly a result of murder or suicide, linger at their graves, unable to rejoin their ancestors. These restless spirits are the ones which can be harvested for zombie voodoo.

Powerful Haitian sorcerers called bokors are believed to have the power to reanimate such corpses. This is achieved through powerful black magic, whereby the bokor can snatch vulnerable souls and imprison them in bottles or earthenware jars called zombi astral. From this point onwards, the soul and corpse of the unnatural dead belong to the bokor.

Under the sorcerer’s control, the un-dead body can be used for various purposes, both benevolent and malicious. However, it is most commonly said that zombies are used by bokors for manual labour, forced into endless, mindless toil on farms or plantations.

The bokor: a Haitian sorcerer who can be either benevolent, or malevolent.
The bokor: a Haitian sorcerer who can be either benevolent, or malevolent.

Revenge

Zombification can also be a form of punishment. Many Haitians believe that bokors sometimes turn a person into a zombie as vengeance for crossing them. It is even believed that a black market in zombie slaves exists, where bokors can sell their zombie creations to fellow sorcerers.

A Haitian woman, Felicia Felix-Mentor, was believed to be a zombie by local people.
A Haitian woman, Felicia Felix-Mentor, was believed to be a zombie by local people.

Haitian people do not fear zombies: they are victims rather than the villains. Instead, they fear becoming zombies at the hands of a malevolent dealer in black magic.

Appearance and Characterisitics

Those thought to have been turned into a zombie look much like those on a traditional Hollywood film set. Grey haggard faces; gaunt features with skin pulled tight against their bones; fixed, staring expression; lessen mental capacity and actions characterised by clumsiness and lethargy.

In addition to physical qualities, Haitian zombies tend to exhibit enhanced physical strength and resistance to both pain and exhaustion – making them ideal for indentured servitude.

Taken from the 1943 film "I walked with a zombie"
Taken from the 1943 film "I walked with a zombie"
Haitian artwork depicting a bokor with two indentured zombie slaves.
Haitian artwork depicting a bokor with two indentured zombie slaves.

A Belief Based on Fear

Scholars have traced the origin of the word “zombie” back to the Kongo word for "soul", nzambi. It is believed that as a result of the slave trade, the voodoo religion was established in Haiti, inspired by both old African traditions and the severe conditions of slavery. As such, the idea of the zombie was born. Today, it is estimated that 80 – 90% of Haitians believe or practice the voodoo religion.

Old superstitions and the fear of zombification have been used as a tool for political and social control in Haiti. From 1957 to 1984, under the oppressive Duvalier regime, the threat of zombification was exploited to quell resistance. Rumours existed that the secret police employed powerful bokor sorcerers to zombify anyone who stepped out of line.

To this day, Article 246 of the Haitian Criminal Code makes mysterious allusions to considering an

“attempt on life […] without giving death, [which] will cause a more-or-less prolonged state of lethargy”.

It also states that the victims may end up being buried as a result of this attempt on their life, sinisterly reminiscent of bokor voodoo and zombification. According to the law, such a crime is akin to murder.

The zombie phenomenon has never left Haiti, with sightings of haggard creatures fairly common in many rural areas. In fact, reports are so commonplace that there have been sensational estimates claiming that there are as many as one thousand new zombies every year.

The Curious Case of Clairvius Narcisse

Clairvius Narcisse: zombie?
Clairvius Narcisse: zombie?

One well-known case of supposed Haitian zombification is that of Clairvius Narcisse. After suffering from a high fever, respiratory problems and aches throughout his body, Narcisse was taken to hospital before slipping into a coma. Two days later, on the 2nd May, 1962, he was officially pronounced dead by physicians.

In spite of his death being authenticated by his two sisters, 18 years later his sister, Angelina, found her brother at the village marketplace. Angelina did not recognise him at first, so certain that her brother was dead, but was eventually convinced of Narcisse’s identity when he shared childhood memories that only the two of them knew. His family, friends and many villagers also recognised him, believing him to be one of the living dead – a zombie. He exhibited the qualities traditionally associated with zombification in Haitian folk myth: a vacant-eyed stare, emaciated facial features, and a shuffling gait.

In the years after his return, Narcisse detailed the fantastical tale of being dug up from his grave by a bokor, and taken to work as a slave on a remote sugar plantation. After years of mindless toil, he was finally released from zombie servitude after the death of his bokor. After that, once he regained enough lucidity he was able to make his way back to his village and find his sister.

Puffer fish can be harvested to create the poison which renders victims in a death-like state.
Puffer fish can be harvested to create the poison which renders victims in a death-like state.

Scientific Explanation

Some academics have tried to explain Haitian zombification through pharmacology. Certain plants have been identified as producing psychoactive effects not dissimilar to a zombie-like state. One leading researcher, Wade Davis, theorised in the 1980s that a death-like state is achieved by the bokor by using a powerful neurotoxin such as that derived from the internal organs of puffer fish called tetrodotoxin – a substance which is 1000 times more toxic than cyanide. Once administer, the victim is buried – believed to be dead by their family. After this, the bokor can revive them and enslave them through the use of psychoactive drugs, such as Jimsons Weed, or the “zombie cucumber,” which can keep someone in a delirious, trance-like state vulnerable to mind control. Other substances thought to trigger frightening psychic dislocation are believed to be involved in the creation of zombies.

Haitian bokors admit the use of powders in the zombification process. However, those researchers who have delved into the spiritual world of the Haitian zombie have found it increasingly difficult to get hold of definitive samples. The powder and its recipe are monopolised by the secret Bizango society, who began as small groups of slaves who escaped from plantations during colonial times. The only samples ever recovered and tested in laboratories have been proven inactive.

Are Haitian zombies a social or scientific phenomenon?

See results

The Cultural Matrix

Could it be that Haitian zombies are a social, and not a scientific, phenomenon? The cultural fabric of the country is ripe for belief in spiritual. From the time of birth, Haitians know that zombies are real: it is not a matter of questioning if. The application of powders to induce a zombie-like state could therefore be the result of a placebo effect. As Wade Davis concluded: “no drug can make a social phenomenon.”


For now, the true cause of Haitian zombification remains unknown.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Moral Man 

      18 months ago

      It is immoral and a crime to turn a person into a zombie. Its criminal, heinous cruelty. The person who conducts the hideous experiment is called a bokor, and his motive for turning his victim into a zombie is so he can have someone slave in the fields without complaining. Its disgusting really, and disgusting ingredients are used for this hellish process, such as putter fish poison. See the movie and book, The Serpent and the Rainbow, where Wade Davis goes to Haiti to investigate how zombies are created.

      A person's identity, memory, and willpower might be removed in the zombification process. His identity as a person is erased. This is disgusting. It gets even more disgusting as the victim is buried inside a coffin and then dug up. That's deliberately burying someone alive. What if the victim should wake up while inside the coffin? Suffocation and claustrophobia are among the worst forms of torture, a fate worse than death. Absolutely, utterly evil. Anyone who creates zombies is a monster and criminal and should be on death row in prison.

      Haiti is a hellhole and is plagued not only by zombies and voodoo, but also plagued by poverty, pollution, corrupt government, Aids, hurricanes, malaria, spiders, scorpions, centipedes. There is a nasty tempered spider, Phormictopus cancerides, the Haitian Brown Tarantula, whose venomous bite can kill any small animal and it can cause severe local pain, headache, and itchiness in humans. The pain can be worse than a rattlesnake bite. These Devilish Arachnids are incredibly aggressive and raise their huge fangs and strike at anything or anyone getting too close. Recently two of these mean tempered spiders got loose in an airplane and bit one passenger.

      The devastating 2010 earthquake in Haiti has made the place a worse hellhole than before. I don't know what's worse or what's scarier, being turned into a zombie, being buried alive, or being bitten by a huge, nasty tempered spider. Being in Haiti is like being in a horror movie.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)