- Education and Science
The Riddle of the Voynich Manuscript
The Voynich manuscript is one of the most mysterious books in the world. Predominantly because no one knows what it is? It is filled with ancient text and mysterious pictures.
Its existence implies that is has passed through many hands in antiquity. Each who has come into contact with the book is captivated and curious to discover its secrets. It is commonly believed the manuscript is encoded, but whether the book is encoded, in an unknown language, or mumbo jumbo is yet to be known.
History of The Manuscript
In 1912 there was an American antiquarian book dealer inspecting some ancient manuscripts in a chest from a Jesuit College, selling off part of its library, located in Villa Monthgrome. His name was Wilfred Voynich who the manuscript is named after. His interest was piqued by the simplicity and uniqueness of one book. The Jesuits had no clue as to the origin of the manuscript. He purchased it under terms of absolute secrecy. He never revealed his source or seller. He was determined to decipher its contents and discover its origin. He estimated it to be from the latter thirteenth century. Voynich found a letter attached to the front cover, dated 1665 from Joannes Marcus Marci to Athanasius Kircher, making a gift of the manuscript to him. Marci explains he inherited the manuscript from a close friend, “Who had tried to decipher it until the end of his life.” Voynich attempted to solve the mystery of the manuscript. Unfortunately he was never able to. Voynich’s attempts to decipher the manuscript ruined his reputation. In 1961 the book was bought by famous antiquarian H.P Kraus for the sum of $24,000 dollars. He was unable to find a buyer when he attempted to sell it for $160000. In 1969 he donated it to the Beinecken rare book library of Yale University, where it currently resides. It has been inspected by investigators and curiosity seekers trying to discover its secrets. Up until recent times the library had refused testing or carbon dating.
The Voynich Book
The book is full of illustrations and text of unknown characters and is written entirely in cipher. The book has no title or author. It seems to be four sections of Star charts, plants, and pictures of little people and of course the writings. Fold out sheets are included. The little people consist of mostly women. The Pictures of plants and astronomical sketches are particularly vivid, and there are simple circular drawings on some pages. Many of the depictions seem imaginary. The feminine pictures are conjoined with what appears to be liquids, and there are pictures of women bathing in pools of green water. The plant illustrations appear to be allegorical and abstract in appearance. Almost everything in the illustrations of the book appears unreal. There seems to be an optical phenomenon if the pages are flipped, the images are in sequence with one another.
The text is perfectly written with nearly no error, smudges or mistakes, as if the author had written it first before copying it down onto the parchment. The characters are written left to right and appear to be in short paragraphs. There are bright hues and colors in the manuscript, as was done in antiquity the illustrations were painted directly onto the sheets. One picture strongly resembles a sunflower, but the sunflower wasn’t discovered until 1493, when Columbus brought it from America.
Attempts to Decode It
No matter how much zeal one possesses to begin with, each ends as they began, empty handed and mystified as to the contents of the manuscript. There is a chain full of links of disappointment and sometimes misfortune of those who have attempted to decode the manuscript.
Ever since 1917 code breaking experts, mathematicians and linguist have given their hand in the attempt. There have been many claims that some have succeeded in translating a passage or word, none have been verified.
At the end of world war two Code breaking expert William Freidman with a team of sixteen others attempted to crack the Voynich code. After one year of work he was unable to decipher it. Jim Reeds cryptographer and mathematician has attempted to decipher the manuscript, after thirty years of failed attempts he doesn’t believe it’s a code at all, but possibly a language of its own.
The language of the manuscript is strange. Some words are written two or three times in a row. There was an arms race of making and breaking codes in Italy during antiquity. Especially during the existence of the holy inquisition, codes made it possible to conceal discoveries considered heretical by the church. The Agregorian College in Rome holds a collection of codes from the past used in Italy. It is noted that two of the characters from the Voynich manuscript has been spotted in this collection.
It is commonly agreed that the book is written in a code or meant to disguise the content. The star charts have been associated with astrology. The allegorical style of the plants suggests it is a medieval type of art. The time period, author, and reason for the creation of the manuscript has long been speculation. There is many theories! Some outlandish. Many as plausible as the next. There will be a clue to suport one theory and another clue discrediting it. The most common theories have been disputed and anylised, none have been substantiated conclusively.
It is a medical manual utilizing herbal remedies, describing how to chop up herbs for medicinal purposes or concoctions. The illustrations of plants would seem to support this theory. The star charts would not contradict the medical manual suggestion. Medicine and magic was associated closely with the starts in ancient times.
The book is of Alchemy knowledge and practices, describing remedies and possibly having to do with Gynecology and contraception. Modern Alchemist believe the reason the plants look unreal is because they have been depicted close up in nature. Modern Alchemist think they may have identified thyme and the water lily. The bathing pools and depiction of women is meant to describe the female reproductive system and the process of fluids in the intestines. It would explain why it was written in code, such remedies dealing in matters of contraception would have had to be hidden from the church.
The book was made by Leonardo Da Vinci as a child. He would have had the wealth and talent to create something with such materials. There has been speculation that this is why the illustrations are childlike in appearance, even though they were made with the use of expensive paints and pigments.
Jacobus de Tepenec is the author. Wilfred Voynich found the signature of Jacobus de tepenec on the inside cover of the manuscript. It can only be seen by ultraviolet light. Tepenec was a courtier of the emperor Rudolph the II. The Marci Letter mentions that Rudolph the II purchased the book at one point for 600 ducats. Tepenec was a traveling doctor and medical plants expert in the seventeenth century. He was summoned by Rudolph the II in1608. Tepenec experimented with and grew plants and made distilled extracts. He treated Rudolph the II personally, as a reward Rudolph raised Tepenec to the gentry. Historians have pointed out that the Voynich illustrations do not match seventeenth century realistic style depictions of herbs and plants. Either way, it was most likely owned by Tepenec at one point.
Roger Bacon was the author. The Marci letter claims that Rudolph the second believed the author was Roger Bacon. Roger Bacon lived in the thirteenth century; he was a Famous English clergymen and miracle doctor. He experimented with lenses and his interest was in optical light and magnification. Bacon possessed an urge for new discoveries. He found an explanation for the rainbow. He was arrested many times by the church. He is a candidate to be a suspected author of the manuscript.
The baffling nature of the manuscript has led some to believe it is a hoax. Voynich created a hoax for profit and fame. Some have even accused him of faking the Marci letter. However some other evidence discredits this theory. Other letters have been found in the Agrorian College in Rome. One dated a year later by Athanasius Kircher, describing the Voynage manuscript to a tee. There is no way Voynich could have known about these letters.
The hoax theory goes beyond Wilfred Voynich. Some think it is an ancient hoax. The primary suspect Edward Kelly.
Edward Kelly was a con artist and known forger. He allegedly lost an ear as punishment. He was an alchemist who claimed he could make gold. He was summoned by Rudolph the second, who sponsored the sciences and was intrigued by magic. Kelly was partners with John Dee. Kelly claimed he contacted angels and knew of a special angel language. Kelly would be in a trance during a séance and John Dee would write the angel language down. Their partnership ended when Kelly claimed the angels told him, he and Dee were to swap wives. Edward Kelly has long been thought of as a likely suspect as the creator of the Voynich Manuscript.
Extraterrestrial Theory! There are many variations of this theory. That it is an alien book written in an alien language, and the pictures of unknown plants and animals resemble no known species on earth, because it is from another planet. The illustration resembling a nebula has been pointed out as the Milky Way galaxy. The pictures of the manuscript have even been interpreted as alien apocalyptic images or warnings.
Parts of the manuscript have been tested, and the ingredients used to make the manuscript studied. Animal skin was used as some of the parchment in the manuscript, suggesting it was made with the highest quality of resources of the time.
The pigments of the manuscript have been analyzed. The samples were sent to the University of Arizona. Hematite and mineral pigment were found. The Ink used was made in different hatches. There are bright and variegated colors used in the manuscript. In early centuries pigments and paints were costly and the process of preparing colors would have required knowledge and skill.
For the first time in 2009 The Yale University at Beinechen library allowed the manuscript to be carbon dated. The parchment of the manuscript was carbon dated 1404-1438 with 95% confidence. This places the manuscript in the early fifteenth century. This displaces Rodger Bacon, Leonardo Davinci, Edward Kelly and Jacobus Tepenec as suspects.
There is only one depiction of a realistic city in the manuscript, a castle with Towers and swallow tail battlements. In the early fifteenth century these kinds of castles only existed in Italy. After all this time this discovery is a clue to the riddle of the Voynich manuscript. Now there is a time and place of origin that can be identified. Where did it come from? This question now has an answer. Perhaps unveiling its secrets will become easier. In spite of every theory and piece of the puzzle, ever discovered of the Voynich Manuscript, the ultimate question still remains. What does it say?
The Secrets of Nature- “The World’s Most Mysterious Manuscript”
“The Mystery of the Voynich Manuscript”- Documentary