- Education and Science
The Secret File of The Earth (2): 30 Degree North Latitude D. Natural and Humane Phenomena
Himalaya Mountains is the largest and the greatest mountain ranges in the present world. It locates at the south side of Tibetan Plateau, starting at Nanga Parbat mountain (8126m) of Pamirs Plateau at 35o14'21" north latitude in its west end, and ends at Nanga Parwa mountain (7782m) at the sharp turn of the Yalu Zangbo great river at 29o37'51" north latitude in its east end. The highest peak, Qiaomolangma Peak or Mount Everest, reaches 8844.43 meters. Himalayas spread in China Tibet, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. The term "Himalaya" is from Tibetanese, meaning "the homeland of ice and snow". Outside Asia, the highest mountain peak, Aconcagua in the Andes, reaches 6962 meters above the sea level, but Himalayas include over 100 peaks exceeding 7200 meters. "Qiaomolangma" is a Tibetan term for "the Godess". "She" is always wearing the white apparel of winter, fair, slim and graceful, standing on the Earth to overlook the human world, and guard the good people. Sometimes it appears in the blue sky, sometimes hides in the white clouds, reflecting a special mystery and sanctity. For adventurous explorers and mountain-climbers, it has greatest attraction.
The Third Pole
Except north and south poles on the Earth, there is the third pole, i.e. the high pole, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, or Tibetan Highland, which is the highest plateau in the world, located between north latitude 25o and 40o. Most part is in north-west China, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Gansu provinces, and the rest involves in Bhutan, Nepal, Parkistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgistan. The highest mountain peak, Qiaomolangma in Himalayas, the second highest mountain peak, Godwin Austin in Karakorums, and other 5 mountain peaks exceeding 8000 meters out of 14 in the whole world are in the plateau. Like in south and north poles, it is also very cold in the high pole. Many places are almost as much as in polar areas, in which none of lives can survive and the temperature difference between days and nights is big. Being the third pole on the Earth, Tibetan Highland has peacefully and proudly stayed deep within snow mountains along human history, and become a legendary place with limitless attraction and mystery in humans' eyes.
The Dead Sea
The dead sea locates between Palestine and Jordan river on 31o north latitude. It is the lowest field on the Earth, and thus has the name of "the navel of the world". The water is about 400 meters below the sea level on average. The dead sea is actually an inland lake. It has high content of salt so that none of organisms can survive in it except for some bacteria and green weeds, which is why it is called "dead sea". However, the dead sea benefits humans because of its rich mineral substances. The specific weight of the water in dead sea exceeds specific weight of humans' body, so anyone cannot sink down into the water even if cannot swim. Thousands of tourists spend holidays there and enjoy the sun and the seawater. Since the area is below the sea level, part of ultraviolet rays is blocked off when the sunlight penetrates through the heavy layers of atmosphere, so tourists can safely bask in the sun. Besides, a group of oxidized salts, such as Mg2+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Br-, are left in the air after the sea water evaporated. Br- is known by its use for tranquilizing, and 20 times higher in the concentration around the sea than in any other place on the Earth. Therefore, the dead sea has become famous natural convalescent hospital. Plus, it is the area with highest air pressure, which makes people feel especially comfortable and easy. The depositary mud on the bottom is made into popular beauty products. The mud has high content of sulfide and other minerals, which help keep warm and clean skin and release the pain on joints.
Nile is the longest river in the world. It is 6,671km long, and includes Kagara river, White Nile and Blue Nile. Nile starts from Kagara river, and ends at Mediterranean Sea at the 30o north latitude, running through one ninth of the area of African continent. The tidal waters every year leave local people rich soil to grow and cultivate crops, and thus creates a "green corridor" in the endless desert and becomes "the source of life" in a region. The delta at the lower reaches conceived of the brilliant ancient Egyptian civilization, and also becomes the political, economical and cultural center of present Egypt. The Egyptian considers Nile as their "the mother of life"!
Changjiang river is the third longest river in the world. It is 6,397km long, and entirely within China, starting from Tanggula Mountain at Qing-Tibet Plateau, and entering into China East Sea at 30o north latitude. Together with Huanghe river, Changjiang is called "the mother river" of Chinese people. Like Nile, Changjiang valley also conceived of splendid ancient civilization and modern economic and cultural center. The Changjiang Three Gorges are world-known by their grandness and dangerousness. However, historic documents recorded two events about Changjiang stopping flow. In 1342, Changjiang river in Taixing city appeared all dried overnight. Next day, people crowded onto the dried river bed to pick up stuff, but the tidal bore came suddenly and quickly, so that many people were drowned. Around 4 o'clock on January 13 in 1954, another similar event happened in the same place. The sky was cloudy and yellow then, and the river stopped flowing at a time. The ships got stranded for over 2 hours, and then the river took the turbulent waves again.
Mississippi river is the fourth longest river, 6,275km long, and 98% flows in the United States. It starts from the Lake Itasca in Mini Sota state, and meanders south-toward into the Gulf of Mexico at 30 degree north latitude. The east branch is Ohio river, and the west is Misouri river. Over 250 tributaries form a huge asymmetrical dendritic drainage on both east and west banks. Mississipi river has become the busiest commercial water system.
Euphrates River is the greatest river in south-west Asia, and 2,800km long. It starts from Karasu river in AnatoliaPlateau in east Turkey, and merges into Persian Gulf at Fao peninsula at the 30o north latitude. Together with Tigris River, it delimits the Mesopotamian Plain, which is known as the valley of Tigris and Euphrates. Sumerian civilization, ancient Babylonian civilization and Assyrian civilization were all born in the valley. In Genesis, Euphrates River is called Phrat river, the fourth river flowing out of the Paradise following Pishon river, Gihon river and Tigris river. The God gave Euphrates to Abraham as one of boundaries of his personal land. According to Bible Builder, the Euphrates would run dry up at the end of the world, to be prepared for Armageddon.
Ancient "grotto" group
In Huanshan city of China at 30o north latitude, there are 36 exotic ancient rocky caves in the outskirt area. Those caves are really gorgeous in their strange structure, spacious inside, caves in caves, intricate pathways alongside lipid stream flowing, like a underground palace. There are no artificial murals, no Buddhist Statues, no written words, but lots of huge stones layer by layer, huge stone poles standing upright, and natural stone sculptures in the shapes of birds and beasts give sufficiently mysterious color, and make those caves become attractive scenic spot and historic museum about stone culture.
A magic wood that defies the law of gravity
In the outskirt area of a small town in California of the United States, there is a thicket and mysterious wood. All trees substantially lean to one side, and so do animals and people. When a people walks in it, s/he cannot help lean toward the same direction with trees, but will not fall down on the ground, and furthermore can walk promptly and easily. There are two pieces of stone slabs with about 50cm long and 20cm wide at the entrance of the wood. They look usual, and stay in a same place with only 40cm apart and on the same level. However, people look higher and greater than regular when stand on one slab, but shorter and fatter on the other one. It is also said that there is a slope path in the wood. When people walk onto it, they will become parallel to the path, and cannot see their feet when they lower their heads but walk forward safely. There is also a cottage. Once people get in there, the body will lean to one side as the logs do. When put a golf ball on an extended and slit wooden slab, the ball will not drop down but roll up. If push the ball off the slab, it will fall down in the declining line of the slab instead of vertical descent. Furthermore, people can walk on the wall freely without any assistance.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Leaning Tower of Pisa in Florence of Italy is world famous. It has had history of 828 years. The tower leans to one side in the inclination of 1.2 to 1.5 meters in the top half part. Even so, it has stood there firmly regardless of weathering for nearly 1,000 years.