ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Secret of Forward Osmosis in Desalination

Updated on November 18, 2014

Unlike reverse osmosis, which uses excessive pump energy and electricity to force salt water through a membrane that separates the salt from the water (high pressure is required from the pumps to do this), forward osmosis uses a natural chemical solute to draw naturally the same process. It relies on the natural pressure difference between the salt water and draw solute to do this. If the correct system works, the cost per gallon in energy will be much less than if done in reverse osmosis, which is the ultimate goal. Clean, drinkable water, for much less. Today, it is a costly affair for most RO systems in operation. The few FO systems that exist today show that desalination costs can be greatly reduced.

Most RO and FO systems have similar components and the general schematic have similar patterns. The salt water enters and is treated to some degree before entering a series of membranes that separate the salt from the water. The brine from the water molecules is discharged back into the ocean. The water is treated further because it is not drinkable. Heat exchangers are used to either heat or cool the water as it travels through the system to or from a coalescer and through numerous filters and carbon filters. By the time the water reaches the end stage, calcium may be added or other chemicals to make it appealing for human consumption. The bigger the systems are that produce 50,000 million gallons of water per day are more complex to build and maintain costing millions. So, finding a way to create clean water cheaply (in terms of energy used to create it) is the goal.

FO systems use far less electrical pumps than RO systems because FO uses the natural pressure difference between the salt water and draw solute. No pumps force the salt water as in RO. There are some 14 draw solutions in various evaluation stages, 7 of them, show real promise. Some of these are complex concoctions of chemicals, diols, nano complexes. Some are food based, meaning a human could ingest them because the composition is found in many foods. But these have their own problems: how does the FDA become involved since it is food based? Do they? Is approval needed? What are the effects on a human if the food based solute is ingested? Do studies need to be done before used for water purification? Most of these food based solutes are tasteless because they mix well in water after salt and water molecules are separated by the membrane. The draw solute enters a coalescer to where under extreme heat of 90 degree C or so, the mixture separates and mostly pure water is filtered and treated at the end stage. Yet, even at this stage, small amounts of the solute remains. Is it dangerous to humans? Other chemicals, like boron, remain in small amounts that fail permissible water regulations. It is hard to remove completely.

The two things that FO systems uniquely have are special membranes able to filter at the micron level and the draw solution.The membranes allow for the salt water to enter on one side, while the draw solution, allows the water molecules to pass through into the solution leaving the salt behind. The membranes are usually custom made and easily can cost $4-7,000 each. One renowned FO\RO specialist membrane manufacturer is Toyobo of Japan. Their membranes are used in many such systems.The secret of the FO system is finding the right combination of membrane and draw solution and separating the water molecules from the solution in such small amounts that it does harm humans when consumed. Another element is to how to use waste heat (steam, solar etc.) most effectively to avoid the use of electrical pumps or reduce their use. This would decrease the cost in kilowatts to produce clean water. FO has been shown to work well in small systems (less than 10 mgd) when compared to RO, but the challenge is in the larger systems.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)