- Education and Science
The Socratic Method and Inductive Vs. Deductive Reasoning
Classic Model of The Socratic Method
The method is used not as a means to establish positive logical truths but rather as a way to dismiss assertions of truth. This is keeping of Socrates definition of wisdom. He asserted often that if he in fact knew nothing and that he was only wiser than other men because he was conscious of this fact.
As such the Socratic Method is primarily a means of refutation in which the ignorance of Socrates' questioner is exposed by the negation of his contention. Socrates himself never wrote anything done and we know only of his method by the dialogues recorded by his student Plato. The method usually begins in these dialogues with an Athenian acquaintance asking Socrates making a timid assertion, in the form of something like, "Is it not the case that, X?" Socrates would dissemble this statement into pieces and draw seemingly true implications from the pieces that the interlocutor would then assent to. Upon the reassemblage of these implications a statement would emerge that was the logic antithesis of the thesis first asserted thus showing it to be a statement of ignorance and invalidity.
Notice here Socrates has not arrived at any new truth but merely eliminated a contention of untruth. Thus is keeping with his definition of Wisdom he demonstrates both the questioner's and his own ignorance regarding positive truth.
The method brought forth the inconsistencies and untenable implications within a positive assertion thus only brings you closer to the truth by laborious eliminations of untruths. The dialogues end in a state of, "aporia, " which is an expression of Philosophical doubt or bewilderment.
Here is an extremely simple example of the Socratic method in practice. You will not find it in any of the published dialogues, it is just a small example I ran across in the past that illustrates the method.
Questioner; Is it not true that the world is flat and not round?
Socratic; I don't know let's examine that, what leads you to believe that the world is flat?
Questioner; When I walk about I do not feel like I am falling forward or falling backward.
Socratic; Indeed neither do I. But let me ask you something, If you travel far enough in a straight will you return to the spot from which you began?
Questioner; I think that you would.
Socratic; Is it not true that ships do such things?
Questioner; Yes, I believe they have been know to do so.
Socratic; Well then it appears that the Earth cannot be flat, wouldn't you agree?
Questioner; Yes I suppose this is true.
Most of the dialogues take on quite a lengthy and involved in which multiple refutations, such as the one just given, interplay to arrive at a much more complex refutation. But this along with some examples to come which will illustrate how the method is used in therapy, in the classroom, and in legal proceeding give a basic view of the probing nature of the method into various aspects of a claim by use of questions that draw out that which is contrary to the original assertion.
Socratic Questioning in Therapy
Deductive and inductive means of reasoning, and specifically Socratic questioning can be useful in many fields. Socratic lines of questioning are an indispensable part of Mental Health Therapy. Opening, guiding, and closing questions are all used to explore a client's issues in greater depth, to elicit tacit conclusions drawn by the client, and to focus new modes of behavior. For example, with a client that selectively remembers only periods of depression and thus concludes that he or she will always be depressed, the Therapist will draw out the exceptions when the person has not felt depressed and point out that the induction they have made is invalid.
In Reality Therapy, a therapy based on conscious choice, a client may reject that they are choosing to feel depressed as a result of their cognitions and actions. A basic use of Socratic questioning can disprove this thusly;
Therapist; So you don't think your actions and thoughts are leading you toward depression?
Therapist; Could you imagine your self making choices and ruminating on thoughts that would make you even more depressed than you are now?
Client; Yes, I suppose so.
Therapist; So must not the opposite also be true? If you can think and act your way into feeling worse doesn't that imply that you can think and act your way into feeling better?
Client; I suppose your right.
Of course, establishing a logically proof by itself doesn't do much for depression. Following the establishment that a client can think and act in ways that will improve his or her mood, the client and therapist must brainstorm ways in which depressive thoughts can be challenged, stopped, and replaced and establish activities in which the client can partake that will lead to moments of decreased depression and increased enjoyment. Once some of these strategies are in place and the client experiences instances of decreased depression they can induce that this is an effective means for dealing with depression.
Useful Applications of The Socratic Method; Induction and Deduction
The method can either use deductive and inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning uses generalizations to arrive at a specific conclusion in a particular situation. In deductive reasoning the proof is considered an absolute given that the premises are valid.
To take an example from Geometry, Given the generalization that all triangles have internal angles that add up to 180 degrees, then any random triangles with which I am presented will can be deduced to have angles that when added together will equal 180 degrees. I am using my general knowledge of triangle properties and applying it to a specific triangle.
An inductive argument is just essentially the opposite. It uses specific examples to arrive at a general rule. To stay with the Geometric example, inductive reasoning is how I would arrive at the premise that all triangles no matter how different they look have angles that add to 180 degrees. I might measure and add the angle of an isosceles triangle and find they equal 180, then I might measure the angles of a scalene triangle and of an equilateral triangle and find that they too both equal 180. I further find that this rule holds no matter what lengths I make the sides of the triangle and from this I induce that all triangles have angles that equal 180 degrees.
In this case my inductive reasoning will always hold true but many inductions are not absolutes. For example if a child pulls three red candies in a row out of an opaque bag then the child might incorrectly induce that all the candies in the bag are red.
Socratic Questioning in School Settings
Law schools use almost entirely the Socratic Method. Because it fosters the probing of one's own assumptions and forces a critical examination of those assumptions in whole, piecemeal, and in relation to other assumptions. For example,
Law professor; What is Case Law?
Law student; A case that establishes a statute?
Law professor; What's a statute? How is it like and unlike a law?
Probing of this type engenders both a more specific and a broader understanding of concepts that a student already thinks that they fully comprehend.
Socratic Dialogue can be used very effectively with all school ages. It works especially well with students because of it's use of questions to be answered and examined instead of statements to be accepted and memorized thus keeping young students actively engaged. An example of a simple exercise for school age child might go like this,
Teacher; What is Arithmetic?
Students; It's Math
Teacher; Ok, then what is Math?
Students; It's doing different things with numbers.
Teacher; What types of things?
Students; Like adding them together.
Teacher; Who can add two numbers together on the chalkboard for me.
Student Writes; 2+2=4
Teacher; Great, thank you, what is that symbol before the 4 you made?
Students; It's an, "equals," sign.
Teacher; Huh, what does it mean?
Students; It means that 2+2 and 4 are the same thing.
Teacher; What do you mean the same thing? They look different to me?
student; We mean they are the same size, just as big as each other.
Teacher; I see, can anyone think of two other numbers that are just as big as 4 when added?
You get the idea, from here you can ask how subtraction is like or unlike addition, get some examples of subtraction using the same numbers that were added and help the students to realize on their own that subtraction is the inverse of addition. ("Opposite," would be a better word to use with them.)
We act out our daily life's by drawing deductive conclusions inductive expectations. We typically just don't analyze or put specific terms to the processes (and in many cases think and act automatically at a near sub-conscious level). But by examining the phenomena by which draw inferences (deductions) and establish beliefs (inductions) and forcing ourselves to better understand that which is innate, we can graft these methods, often to great advantage, onto situations in which we might not normally use them.