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The day “Mona” went missing – 100 years after La Gioconda was stolen from the Musée du Louvre

Updated on August 31, 2012

An icon is created

"Mona Lisa left the Louvre a work of art. She returned an icon." - R.A. Scotti in Vanished Smile: The Mysterious Theft of Mona Lisa (Knopf, 2009)

When Parisian artist Louis Béroud went into the famous Musée du Louvre in Paris to work on his painting “Mona Lisa at the Louvre” all he found in the Salon Carré where the famous painting used to hang were the empty pegs which had held it in position. Mona Lisa had taken a walk!

Béroud, an artist who made his living by painting copies of famous works for tourists, reported the absence of the masterpiece to museum authorities who at first thought the painting might have been taken to the museum's new photography studio to be photographed, but when after some hours it was found that it was not there or anywhere in the museum, the alarm was raised.

By lunchtime that day, 22 August 1911, around 60 investigators from the Paris police had closed the Louvre and were letting the visitors out slowly. No trace of the missing art treasure was found.

The Louvre was closed for a full week to assist the investigators, and poet Guillaume Apollinaire and artist Pablo Picasso were both brought in for questioning. Picasso was released quickly, but Apollinaire stayed in gaol for a full week before he too was released. The identity of the thief remained a mystery.

When the Musée du Louvre was reopened people, including writer Franz Kafka and his friend Max Brod who were in Paris at the time, queued for hours to see the vacant place on the wall where the now very famous painting had hung. And still there were no firm ideas as to the identity of the thief, though an inside job was becoming the more favoured theory as the theft had occurred the day before it was discovered, a Monday, and the Louvre was always closed on Mondays for cleaning.

"Mona Lisa au Louvre" - the painting Louis Beroud was working on when he discovered the theft. Image via Wikipedia
"Mona Lisa au Louvre" - the painting Louis Beroud was working on when he discovered the theft. Image via Wikipedia
The sight which Louis Beroud saw instead of La Gioconda. Image via Wikipedia
The sight which Louis Beroud saw instead of La Gioconda. Image via Wikipedia
Alfredo Geri. Image via Wikipedia
Alfredo Geri. Image via Wikipedia
Police photo of Vincenzo Perrugia. Image via Wikipedia
Police photo of Vincenzo Perrugia. Image via Wikipedia

Who dunnit?

The theft was a mystery which only added to the allure of the painting. Various theories circulated about the theft and the identity of the thief, but none made real sense. Only the Paris Prefect of Police came close to the thief's identity, though not his motive, when he stated: “I am certain that the motive was not a political one, but maybe it is a case of 'sabotage,' brought about by discontent among the Louvre employees.”

The case became an international sensation and police received advice from all sorts of people – cranks and well-meaning people alike.

The first breakthrough in the case came two years later when Florentine art and antique dealer Alfredo Geri placed an advertisement in Italian newspapers offering to buy paintings and other artefacts. Geri received a letter from Paris dated 29 November 1913 from a person who signed himself “Leonardo” stating that he, Leonardo, had the Mona Lisa in his possession and offering to sell it: “The stolen work of Leonardo da Vinci is in my possession. It seems to belong to Italy since its painter was an Italian.”

Geri immediately contacted the Commendatore Giovanni Poggi, museum director of the Uffizi Museum in Florence. They decided to play along and to ask Leonardo to meet them in Milan on 22 December. A letter to that effect was sent to the return address in Paris.

The man with the moustache

On 10 December a moustachioed man calling himself Leonardo Vincenzo walked into Geri's office in Florence saying he had the Mona Lisa and wanted to sell it for 500000 lire. Geri, being somewhat skeptical of the claim, demanded to see the painting. An appointment was made for Geri to go to Vincenzo's hotel the following day to view the painting.

Geri and Poggi went to Vincenzo's room in the Tripoli-Italia Hotel where Vincenzo pulled the precious painting out of a battered suitcase. The three then went to the Uffizi where Poggi said the painting would be authenticated. When Vincenzo returned to his hotel room he found the Florentine police waiting for him and he was arrested.

It turned out that “Vincenzo's” real name was Vincenzo Peruggia, a house painter-cum-glazier who had briefly worked in the Musée du Louvre. In fact it was he who had put the glass shield in front of the Mona Lisa when the museum authorities had decided to enclose their precious painting in glass for protection.

Perrugia, who was known to some of the museum staff, apparently had hidden away in a storage closet in the museum on Sunday evening, knowing that the museum would be very quiet the following day. He had waited until the guard in the Salon Carré went out for a moment, and he then simply lifted the painting off the hooks in the wall, hid it under the painter's smock that all museum staff wore, and carried it out, having dumped the frame and the glass shield in a stairwell.

The painting lay on a table in Perrugia's one-room apartment in the rue de l’Hôpital Saint-Louis for two years until he made contact with Geri. A detective had in fact visited Perrugia in that time and had not noticed the painting.

Perrugia had no plan of what to do with the painting, though he seems to have had some idea that the painting belonged in Italy. That had not stopped him trying to sell it to a dealer in London. The dealer had merely laughed at Perrugia's claim to have the Mona Lisa.

Perrugia was kept in prison until his trial started on 14 June 1914. Meanwhile the painting had been making a triumphant tour of Italy, with the permission of the Musée du Louvre. It finally returned to its rightful place in the Salon Carré in January 1914.

Perrugia was sentenced to one year and 15 days, reduced a little later to seven months and nine days. Because he had already spent more than that time in gaol he was released immediately. When he went back to his hotel in Florence he found that it had been renamed, inevitably, “La Gioconda”.

Meanwhile the excitement over the theft of the Mona Lisa had been overshadowed by the fact that on 28 July 1914 Gavrillo Princip fired the shots that precipitated the conflagration now known as the “First World War” and the public had much more to concern themselves with than a painting showing what Somerset Maugham called “the insipid smile of that prim and sex-starved young woman”.

Perrugia died at age 44 in October 1925 in France, not in 1947 as is often claimed. There was a Vincenzo Perrugia who died in 1947, but this was a mere coincidence of names.

What the fuss was all about: Da Vinci's famous painting. Image via Art Renewal Center
What the fuss was all about: Da Vinci's famous painting. Image via Art Renewal Center

The painting

Leonardo da Vinci began painting a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo around 1503. It is thought that the portrait was commissioned by Giocondo to celebrate the safe delivery of the couple's second son.

In 1516 King François I of France invited Leonardo to work on his mansion Clos Lucé and the artist took the still unfinished portrait with him to France. Leonardo died at Clos Lucé in 1519 and the King bought the portrait from the artist's heirs for 4,000 écus.

Of course “Mona” is not the name of the person in the protrait but is a contraction of the Italian ma donna or “my lady” which as contracted to “monna” and thence “mona” in English.

The other title by which the painting is commonly known, “La Gioconda” is a pun – Gioconda was the feminine form of the subject's married name and also means “happy” or “jovial” and was the lady's nickname because of her disposition.

La Gioconda or the Mona Lisa is perhaps the single best-known work of art in the world.

The “lady with the mystic smile” has been written about, sung about and theorised about for a long time, but she really became a celebrity that day, 100 years ago, when Vincenzo Perrugia, for his own reasons, decided to take her home.


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    • Kristen Howe profile image

      Kristen Howe 

      4 years ago from Northeast Ohio

      This was a fascinated hub. Real interesting to know about the backstory of the the Mona Lisa painting's history, when it went missing. Voted up!

    • Easy Exercise profile image

      Kelly A Burnett 

      4 years ago from United States

      Fascinating piece of history. I had heard about this but never had the chance to read about it in depth. Sad, it seemed too easy to lift this remarkable piece of art. Thank you!

    • Storytellersrus profile image


      6 years ago from Stepping past clutter

      Tony, this was new information and I enjoyed the read trememdously; its understated style made this tale all the more astonishing. I cannot imagine it and am delighted to know these facts!!!

      Beyond the story of the theft, I had always read that the identity of Mona was unclear. I found it refreshing to discover this is not the case and that the satisfied smile is that of a mother having given birth. It makes complete sense to me, having been in that place myself; I understand such a moment of complete bliss.

      I think of you so often, you would be surprised. I came to this site, having read a recent comment of yours- or fairly recent anyway. Do you spend much time here or are you writing at your new site most often? I am sorry I have been remiss in visiting those columns.

      Have a wonderful May, Tony. I hope your darling daughter is riding bicycles with great aplumb these days!

    • lionel1 profile image


      7 years ago

      Wow I've always been interested in the Mona Lisa, so your hub post is really appreciated.

    • Scribenet profile image


      7 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      I wonder if Perrugia enjoyed looking at the famous painting in his one room apartment for two years...what a waste if he didn't. Perhaps that was the have the famous painting to himself for awhile... because he had to have known he would be caught as soon as he tried to sell it!

      Interesting Hub!

    • CASE1WORKER profile image


      7 years ago from UNITED KINGDOM

      Superb telling of a history that not many know about. Luckily he tried to sell it before the war or it might not have survived. Anyone who had bought the painting would have only been able to view it alone as it is so well known others would have told the police

    • felicitylovespari profile image


      7 years ago

      I had read this story before, but this a much more detailed account. Thanks for telling it.

    • MartieCoetser profile image

      Martie Coetser 

      7 years ago from South Africa

      Articles about the Mona Liza always attract. Perhaps she would not have been today the single best-known work of art in the world if Vincenzo Perrugia had not stolen her?

      As always, Tony, you are a formidable writer. Dit was lekker om weer iets van jou te lees.

    • alekhouse profile image

      Nancy Hinchliff 

      7 years ago from Essex Junction, Vermont

      Wow, Tony, this is absolutely fascinating. I can't believe Picasso was brought in for questioning.So glad you're writing your stuff.

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      7 years ago from Southern Illinois

      Tony, I've missed you. What a fascinating story. I can't imagine anyone thinking they could sell this famous painting. Thank you for sharing.


    • Robwrite profile image


      7 years ago from Oviedo, FL

      Very interesting. I had no idea the painting was gone for two years. Thanks for the information.


    • randslam profile image

      Rand Zacharias 

      7 years ago from Kelowna, British Columbia

      I just heard this story on CBC Radio and loved it. I've seen her up close in the Louvre and know the theft of this work wouldn't be possible now, but it would become a movie.

      Thanks for great story...voted up and interesting.

    • maven101 profile image


      7 years ago from Northern Arizona

      Great read, Tony...The painting was commissioned by her husband to celebrate the safe birth of their second child...Was her smile that of a woman pregnant with her third..? Voted up, interesting, and very well written...Thanks, Larry

    • De Greek profile image

      De Greek 

      7 years ago from UK

      I shall never forgive grandfather Perrugia for changing his name out of embarrassment for his actions. I rather like that name :-))

    • amillar profile image


      7 years ago from Scotland, UK

      Hi Tony - he should have asked to have it mounted on his prison cell wall, for the duration.

    • tlpoague profile image


      7 years ago from USA

      What a facinating story! I can't believe the man thought he could get away with the theft and sell the painting. Thanks for sharing this interesting bit of history. It was fun reading.

    • tonymac04 profile imageAUTHOR

      Tony McGregor 

      7 years ago from South Africa

      Thanks for the read and the comment - glad you enjoyed it. A definition of optimism indeed!

      Love and peace


    • attemptedhumour profile image


      7 years ago from Australia

      Hi Tony, what an interesting story. Trying to get away with selling the Mona Lisa really is the definition of optimism. Thankfully the thief didn't damage, or destroy such a famous work of art. I love watching art programs where history is so richly entwined into the painting and its artist. Thanks mate


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