The greatest scientific minds in Chronological order
Archimedes - famous for his mathematical genius this guy has his name engraved in many places all throughout scientific wordings and expressions. The term "Archimedes rule is one, and the Archimiees spiral is another". He was instrumental in the creation of a very approximate explanation of pi (3.141414.........) in mathematics, and his methods of understanding a great deal of calculus helped us define the area underneath an arc. His scientific genius extends across the full spectrum of physics, astronomy, engineering, and he also was an inventor.
Pythagorus - He had a pretty bad rap throughout history for some reason when it comes to his actual contributions to philosophy, but this great mind was thinking mostly along the lines about triangles, and is mostly well known in mathematics for his theorem which is debatable as well as to where the true origin of such a mathematical proof as the Pythagorean Theorem (Used in Trigonometry).
Either way he was credited for a powerful thought process that all mathematicians today depend on, and the fact that triangles are the strongest shape makes his theorem even more tough to swallow mathematically, which are used in, trigonometry, calculus, engineering of structures today, and many other science courses as well.
Blaise Pascal - he was instrumental with his works and studies he came up with on the characteristic nature of fluid or fluid dynamics. His understanding of the scientific world extended to mathematics where he actually invented the first mechanical calculator. His other scientific contributions dealt with pressure and vacuum, which was shown in his experiment known as Pascal's Barrel.
This very cool experiment lead to many more scientific and mathematical proofs in later years for various scientists, and helped to develop the fluid mechanics and dynamics engineering courses that we know of today at the university level.
His scientific works are still being used quite frequently today by students world wide, and many of them get to know much of it early in junior high, high school and potentially even in grammar school as well.
Nicolaus Copernicus - He was the first astronomer to get it right, meaning he defined for humanity the fact that the sun is the center of this universe we reside in, hence the name was coined "The Heliocentric Model" or also known as Heliocentric cosmology. His advanced ways of thinking was challenged by the church and world rulers of his time, but history favored his findings in the end, and he was crowned as the one who began the scientific revolution, and it was named after him as the Copernican Revolution.
Galileo Galilei - A devote follower of Copernicus, he made major headway in the field of astronomy, where he improved the telescope itself, and came up with some amazing discoveries about Jupiter's moons, and many other celestial bodies. With his inquisitive mind and watchful new high powered lenses he had built himself, he could actually see much more then that of his counterparts. This new found capability had lead Galileo to a greater awareness of the astrological constellations.
He also wrote some profound knowledge on the subjects of physics and mathematics, which came to be known as "The Two New Sciences", in which became Kinematics (Is the motion of points, bodies & systems of bodies without regard to what actually has caused such motion or movement) today, and also Strength of materials, which are both used in engineering sciences. (Indirectly referenced from Wikipedia)
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