ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The rulers of the Delhi Sultanate were either Turks or Afghans

Updated on February 28, 2016

Indian History: Balban


Foundation of the Delhi Sultanate

Northern India after Harsha

The death of Harsha in about AD 647 was followed the break up of his empire into a number of small kingdoms which frequently fought against each other for establishing, the supremacy. By the middle of the eighth century, the majority of the states of Northern India had come to be ruled by different clans of a community or caste known as the Rajputs. The Pratihara clan of these Rajputs soon established their paramount authority in the north and west by subjecting other clans. They also played an important role in preventing the Arabs from extending their territory beyond Sindh.

In the east, the Pala dynasty, ruling over Bengal and Bihar, challenged the efforts of the Pratiharas to advance eastwards. Both the Palas and Pratiharas were defeated more than once by the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan who, however, failed to convert their victories into territorial gains.

The power of the Pratiharas as well as of the Palas was already on the decline when Mahmud of Ghazni carried out a number of invasions of India during the tenth – eleventh centuries. Western Punjab became a part of the Kingdom of Ghani as a result of Mahmud's invasion but the rest of the country continued be ruled by the different Rajput clans. By the twelfth century, two of them, the Challenges of Shakambari (modern Sambhar) and Jamie and the Gahadavalas of Kanauj had established large kingdoms and were fighting against each other for supremacy in northern India.

Foundation of the Delhi Sultanate

Towards the end opf the twelfth century Mohammad, the Turkish ruler of Ghor in Afganistan, carried out a number of invasions of India. He defeated Prithviraj Chauhan and Jaichand, the Gahadvala ruler of Kanauj, and annexed most of their territories. The greater part of northern India thus became a part of the Turkish empire of Ghor. But Mohammad Ghori himself did not stay in India. Instead he appointed Qutab - din – Aibak, one of his slaves who had risen to the position of a general in his army, as viceroy and left his India empire in his charge. After the death of Ghori in 1206, Aibak assert his independence from Ghor and declared himself to be the Sultan or ruler of Delhi. Thus was founded the first Turkish Sultanate of Delhi.

Delhi Sultanate


Tomb of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazn




Nader shah of persia


The rule of Turk- Afghan period

The Delhi Sultanate started breaking up into a number od independent kingdoms as the successors of Firoz could not keep it together. The provinces of Bengal, Malwa and Gujarat became independent one after another. An independent kingdom was also established at Jaunpur. Soon after, two powerful kingdoms, the Bahmani and the Vijayanagar came up in southern India. Most of the Rajput states also reasserted their independence. The invasion of Taimur, a cruel and ruthless conqueror from Central Asia in 1398, was a further blow to the prestige and power of the Tughlaq. The last Tughlaq rulers was overthrown by one Khizr Khan, an Afghan ruler of Multan in 1413.

Khizr Khan founded the Sayyid dynasty which replaced the Tughlaqs. The Sultanate was breaking up and the four rulers of the Sayyid dynasty were unable to revive it. The last of them, Sultan Ala – ud- - din Shah was forced in 1451 by Bahlul Lodi, another Afghan, to surrender the throne to him and settle in Badaun (UP).

Bahlul Lodi (1451 – 1489) succeeded in conquering some of the provinces of the empire which had broken away from the Sultanate. His son, Sikandar Lodi (1489 – 1517) was even more energetic and extended the boundaries of the empire up to Bengal in the east. He shifted the capital from Delhi to Agra and also conquered Gwalior, Sikandar lodi is also known for his policy of intolerance towards Hindus. He was followed by Ibrahim Lodi (1517 – 26) who was the last of the Lodi Sultans. His defeat and death at the hands of Babur in 1526 marked the end of the Delhi Sultanate and the founding of the Mughal empire.

The founding of the delhi Sultanate marked the beginning of a period of prolonged Muslims rule in India. The rulers of the Delhi Sultanate were either Turks or Afghans . Even the Mughals who came after them were of Turkish origin. While a large number of Indians were converted to Islam during those centuries, effective political power continued to be exercised by dynasties and officials of foreign origin.

Indian Muslims had little say in the matters of government. The period of the Delhi Sultanate can, therefore, also be described as the Turko – Afghan period. The frequent dynastic changes during this period were due to the fact that the struggle for power was confined to a handful of Turks and Afghans who changed their loyalties from one to another conspirator for personal gain. None of them had a firm base in the country. It is interesting to note that the different Turko – Afghan dynasties vanished without a trace while the Rajputs dynasties, defeated by them, continued for centuries.

Mughal India and the growth of British power



    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)