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- Sociology & Anthropology
sociology is defined as the science of society, the scientific study of the social behaviour of human beings; the study of human groups, life or the study of social relations or institutions. Despite the diversity of definitions, it is only relevant to note that the content of these definitions are essentially the same. In reviewing definitions, it should be understood that sociology focus its primary attention on human society and the relationships between people as individuals as social group of subjects called social. Sociology is a branch of the group of subjects called social sciences. This group of subject attempt to bring a scientific attitude to bear upon various aspects of social life.
The focus on society and social life, emanates from the understanding that no man is an island. Human beings are always living groups and individual. Numerous scholars have underlined this fact by observing and recording what has been called the natural tendency for men to associate themselves in groups. Thus it is necessary to look for description and explanations of human behavior within the realm of learning and experience, or in other words, in the group setting.
To this end, sociology studies the consequences of the fact that people live and die among other people, deriving their personalities, identities and world view from their social groups social relationships within it. It can be notice that in every society, people must eat, sleep, mate and engage in one activity or the other. However, what they eat, when they eat, when and where they sleep, when they mate, with whom and under what arrangement; the kind of activity they engage in, more or less are determined not by their biology make-up but by social arrangement. Their behavior and total life style is influenced by the social context of their origin. Sociology study these social arrangements, their origins, why they endure, as well as their consequences.
Again, an observation will show that there are different types of societies; different types of men and women who live in different observations will also reveal that among these divergent peoples and cultures, there are shared goals and aspirations which may perpetuate one's lineage through family formation and reproduction of offspring's, own basic shelter, clothing and tools, and to which offers some form of protection and security. Sociology study the basic nature of human societies locally and universally with the various processes that preserve continuity and produce people as well as their culture.
The study of culture, customs, social structures and institutions are central in the study of sociology because these social arrangement emerge from social interaction, due to the fact that these social arrangement together, as well as those that weaken them, and the effects that participation in group or organization have on the behavior and character of persons. Institutionalized social forms therefore are assumed to play the major part in influencing human actions.
It is the task of sociology to discover how these forms operate in the person, as well as how they are established, develop, elaborate, interact with one another. Among the most important of such structures is the family, the subject of an important field of sociology. The peer group, the community, the economic and political orders, the church and the military are of particular importance in this inquiry.
The beginning of sociology as an academic discipline is trace to the french physicist and social philosopher, Augustus comte who put forth a challenge for the scientific study of society in a series of works published between 1830 and 1842. He is remembered as the father of sociology because in the books he wrote, he work out a general approach to the study of society. He believes that sciences follow one another in a definite and logical order and that all inquiry goes through certain stages. on this premise, he recommended that the study of society become the science of society.
The name he gave to this new science was sociology . The word he created in 1837 by combining the Latin word for society (Socius), and the Greek word for science (logos). The word sociology was well launch and became the permanent name of the discipline. Thus the study of human society was launched and it has experience rapid growth among other academic disciplines over the years. It has spread to all over Europe, America, Africa, Asia and all parts of the world.