The Four Lobes of The Brain
A little recap before we touch on the brain lobes.
Please note that occasionally, there is a fifth lobe called the Insula which is located in the temporal lobe.
The frontal lobe is located at the front part of the brain. It is further divided into the following regions:
- Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus)-- Area responsible for the bodily movements
- Broca's Area-- Area responsible for the control of the facial neurons, speech, language comprehension (damage to the Broca's Area would result in Broca's Aphasia which is the loss of the ability to speak (decreased motor ability) but being able to understand speech).
- Orbitofrontal Cortex
- Olfactory Bulb-- responsible for smell
Its functions/roles revolve around
- Memory Formation
One classic case that clearly shows the functions of the frontal lobe being affected is the case of Phineas Gage.
PHINEAS GAGE CASE STUDY
Phineas Gage worked as a detonation expert in the 19th Century. In one instance, a 42-inch pole impaled his skull through the anterior frontal lobe, down to his cheek. He miraculously lived and recovered. However, his personality, reasoning, and ability to socialize were affected. All these were the result of a damage in his frontal lobe.
The occipital lobe is located at the very back part of the brain. The visual cortex is located in this lobe.
There are two major cortical regions in the occipital lobe and they are:
- Primary Visual Cortex-- Area of the brain that is responsible for sight (recognize size, color, light, motion, so on).
- Visual Association Area-- Area that interprets information from primary visual cortex.
Its main functions are:
- Visual Processing
- Visual Integration
As the name suggests, the temporal lobe is located at the sides just below the temple. Because of its unique location near the ears, it is where the auditory cortex is located.
There are three major cortical regions found in the temporal lobe and they are:
- Primary Auditory Cortex-- Area responsible for hearing
- Primary Olfactory Cortex-- Area that is responsible fore the interpretation of smell
- Wernicke's Area-- Area responsible for language comprehension. If there is a problem with this area, it results in Wernicke's Aphasia which affects the ability to understand language.
It plays a role in
- Comprehension of Language
The parietal lobe is located at the back of the frontal lobe and on top of the temporal lobe. This is where the somatosensory cortex is located.
There are three major cortical regions found here and they are:
- Primary Somatosensory Cortex-- or the Postcentral Gyrus; Area responsible for tactile and proprioceptive ("awareness of body parts in space in relation to one another") senses.
- Somatosensory Association Cortex-- Area that helps in the "interpretation of sensations relative to body orientation."
- Primary Gustatory Complex-- Area responsible for the interpretation of taste
Its main functions involve the
- Integration of senses and sensations
- Spatial awareness