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The Four Lobes of The Brain

Updated on October 16, 2011

A little recap before we touch on the brain lobes.

Our brain has three main parts, namely the Forebrain, Hindbrain and the Midbrain. It is the forebrain that contains the four lobes: temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal.

Please note that occasionally, there is a fifth lobe called the Insula which is located in the temporal lobe.


The frontal lobe is located at the front part of the brain. It is further divided into the following regions:

  • Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus)-- Area responsible for the bodily movements
  • Broca's Area-- Area responsible for the control of the facial neurons, speech, language comprehension (damage to the Broca's Area would result in Broca's Aphasia which is the loss of the ability to speak (decreased motor ability) but being able to understand speech).
  • Orbitofrontal Cortex
  • Olfactory Bulb-- responsible for smell

Its functions/roles revolve around

  • Memory Formation
  • Emotions
  • Movement
  • Reasoning
  • Creativity

One classic case that clearly shows the functions of the frontal lobe being affected is the case of Phineas Gage.


Phineas Gage worked as a detonation expert in the 19th Century. In one instance, a 42-inch pole impaled his skull through the anterior frontal lobe, down to his cheek. He miraculously lived and recovered. However, his personality, reasoning, and ability to socialize were affected. All these were the result of a damage in his frontal lobe.


The occipital lobe is located at the very back part of the brain. The visual cortex is located in this lobe.

There are two major cortical regions in the occipital lobe and they are:

  • Primary Visual Cortex-- Area of the brain that is responsible for sight (recognize size, color, light, motion, so on).
  • Visual Association Area-- Area that interprets information from primary visual cortex.

Its main functions are:

  • Visual Processing
  • Visual Integration


As the name suggests, the temporal lobe is located at the sides just below the temple. Because of its unique location near the ears, it is where the auditory cortex is located.

There are three major cortical regions found in the temporal lobe and they are:

  • Primary Auditory Cortex-- Area responsible for hearing
  • Primary Olfactory Cortex-- Area that is responsible fore the interpretation of smell
  • Wernicke's Area-- Area responsible for language comprehension. If there is a problem with this area, it results in Wernicke's Aphasia which affects the ability to understand language.

It plays a role in

  • Hearing
  • Organization
  • Comprehension of Language
  • Memory


The parietal lobe is located at the back of the frontal lobe and on top of the temporal lobe. This is where the somatosensory cortex is located.

There are three major cortical regions found here and they are:

  • Primary Somatosensory Cortex-- or the Postcentral Gyrus; Area responsible for tactile and proprioceptive ("awareness of body parts in space in relation to one another") senses.
  • Somatosensory Association Cortex-- Area that helps in the "interpretation of sensations relative to body orientation."
  • Primary Gustatory Complex-- Area responsible for the interpretation of taste

Its main functions involve the

  • Integration of senses and sensations
  • Spatial awareness
  • Perception


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    • profile image

      valencia 3 years ago

      i like this im learning something new

    • Evan Smiley profile image

      Evan Smiley 4 years ago from Oklahoma City

      Wow! Really interesting! I've always been so fascinated by the brain! Awesome hub!

    • profile image

      Maddie 5 years ago

      I love this it really does help!

    • profile image

      Steve 5 years ago

      It has been very informative

    • profile image

      Daphne Shadows 5 years ago

      Saving this for a research tool. Thanks. :D

    • inaniLoquence profile image

      inaniLoquence 6 years ago from Singapore

      Rosie, thank you for passing by and am glad you found it useful! :D

    • Rosie2010 profile image

      Rosie Rose 6 years ago from Toronto, Canada

      Hiya Inaniloquence, very interesting and informative hub. Good job on the research and presentation. Voted up and useful. Cheers!

      Have a nice day,