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Physiological & Psychological Learning.

Updated on March 26, 2012

Knud Illeris

The article titled “Towards a Contemporary and Comprehensive Theory of Learning”, Knud Illeris first explains that content of competence is closely related to one’s personal attributes and how it has an impact on the ability to perform and adapt in unfamiliar and familiar environments. Illeris continues on to show relevance between knowledge learned and personal skills. He attempts to explain why two fundamental assumptions is all that is needed to understand the process of how adults learn and why traditional learning concepts should be revised.

He writes “Firstly, that all learning includes two essentially different types of process, namely an external interaction process between the learner and his or her social, cultural and material environment, and an internal psychological process of acquisition and elaboration in which new impulses are connected with the results of prior learning”. He proposes two assumptions in which to learn about ways to use this knowledge in educational school systems. This will also brake down those barriers that hinder the learner and teacher to gain the most through education.

My Reflection

I applaud Mr. Illeris for highlighting an area within the school educational system that was definitely in need of some improvements. It takes a caring and dedicated individual to make this issue publicly known and construct new fundamentals in order to improve on education it. For me it makes sense that the theory inspired from fundamental assumptions has more truth than not.

When When evaluating learning theories you will learn that our personal qualities and skills greatly impact one another, therefore involving this information when considering how adults learn should be incorporated. This article covered some crucial points when it comes to getting the full potential of what is learned. Illeris said it best when he wrote, “Thus what should be learned in education as well as in working and societal life is a complex totality of traditional and up-to-date knowledge, orientation and overview, combined with professional and everyday life skills and a broad range of personal qualities such as flexibility, openness, independence, responsibility, and creativity”.

Illeris, Knud (2003). “Towards Contemporary and Comprehensive Theory of Learning”. International Journal of Lifelong Education, VOL. 22, NO. 4 (July–August 2003), p. 396-406.


Thomas Kuhn

According to Kuhn’s paradigm beliefs there would be valid reasons and truths on both ends because when exploring theories it can lead to other truths within the not proven truths of what was initially discussed. It would be said that a misconception of a theory or inconsistency in an existing theory would be named an anomaly; this anomaly would set forth a new discovery of theories. Is there a right or wrong way of understanding the world? I would have to say understanding of the world takes more than theories it takes faith and knowledge. We also have a higher power that allows us-humans to develop/discover things in which brings about understanding. Some theories are shaped by environment, society, or family values/morals. What scientist discover under the many studies conducted, researches, there are many unexplainable occurrences that aren’t scientifically proven. Some people cease to believe that such discipline as science-the thing conducting experiments and discovering can explain human evolution.

David Hume

Hume inferred that human knowledge is not related to that of induction-the method of inference that uses past experiences to justify our inferences about future events. That one’s cause-and-effect conclusions/experiences are subject to probable reasoning. Hume is stating that a person that claims to be certain that one’s inferences are accurate prior to experience, then there should be proof that guarantees the conclusion. He concludes in his opinion of induction that we as humans can question two types of things, matters of fact and relations of ideas, that they can be either true or false but it is never certain.

Achilles and the tortoise

In a race, the quickest runner can never overtake the slowest, since the pursuer must first reach the point whence the pursued started, so that the slower must always hold a lead".

Achilles and the tortoise paradox focuses on two runners that are both striving to be first at the check point in which it began. For them to reach this end check point the runners must first reach goals/check points that would bring you back to the point which was started. So a certain distance has to be covered and check points passed. To reach the end one’ would have to pass the meter marks consistent with the amount of meters to be run. Where the slow tortoise is sure to reach each one in due or overdue time and on the other hand the Achilles doesn’t take the time and is blinded by deceit and eagerness. This causes the Achilles to not reach the points which are required to win the race in first place. We could repeat these 'requirements' forever. Thus the runner has to reach an infinite number of 'midpoints' in a finite time. This is impossible, so the runner can never reach his goal.

The Dichotomy Paradox

That which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal".

In order for the locomotion to reach its destination it must first make it and pass the half-way stage.

Paradox Mysteries

Which question(s) can you make sense of and provide an answer for?

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Sorites Paradox

"One grain of sand is not a heap. If you don't have a heap, then adding only one grain of sand won't give you a heap. Then no number of grains of sand will make a heap".

This paradox can be viewed or evaluated in many shades of light, I am considering the mathematical point of view in which to understand and/or explain. If you have a grain of sand it is just that a single grain of sand-a particle. If you do not already have a heap and is simply adding more particles of sand to it, the grain of sand remains still as a grain or two grain of sand not able to equal up to a heap. A heap is only a heap when it equals the appropriate amount that is technically or mathematically considered a heap by the amount or the weight.

Ship of Theseus

It seems like you can replace any component of a ship, and it will still be the same ship. So you can replace them all, one at a time, and it will still be the same ship. But then you can take all, the original pieces, and assemble them into a ship. That, too, is the same ship with which you started.

Whether or not the ship acquires a new replacement of a component it still remains as it was-a ship. Even if you replace all the components the ship will have the same make-up and remain a ship just with new parts.

A Pop Quiz that's not a Surprise

The teacher claims that there will be a pop quiz one day next week. After thinking about it, Johnny yells, “There will be no quiz next week!”Why?

A pop quiz is a pop quiz because it is not announced or given knowledge of beforehand. If a pop quiz is announced that would mean there is no pop quiz or no quiz at all.

Barber Paradox

This paradox poses the thought of being on shaky ground when it comes to even clear or simple statements. Barber paradox can be deciphered as such, a man that shaves his self does not get shaved by the barber yet any man that doesn’t shave himself gets this service by the barber. So for the barber himself the rules that apply to the consumer or customers do not apply to him personally. It would only apply to a specific group and those are customers. Also only when a person shaves themselves is when their qualified to perform the same duty on another. This paradox does lead to contradictions because it says that he doesn't shave men who shave themselves, but who shaves the barber is the mystery. Both possibilities lead to a contradiction.


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    • Browneesorchids profile image

      Browneesorchids 6 years ago from United States

      I always thank thoughs that have read, commented and became a follower of my hubs. It's humbling and I am most grateful for my passion and moreover, my gift.

    • ChristinS profile image

      Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest

      very interesting hub about the learning process. I love to learn (wish I'd have loved it as much in my formative years) It's fascinating to learn how we process information. up and interesting.