# Thermodynamics on a Cosmic Scale

## Part Eight

Continued from Part Seven,** https://hubpages.com/education/From-Molecules-to-Galaxies**

According to the second law, entropy for the universe should always be increasing. Cosmologists mostly look at what is happening locally and attempt to apply those physical effects globally. They break things up into scales of size, but generally refer to macro and micro states (or local versus global, large/small scale structure).

One source says that “Galaxies are not uniformly distributed in space” although, “On large scales the Universe displays coherent structure, with galaxies residing in groups and clusters” while another sees the universe as “a homogeneous and isotropic distribution of particles (galaxies) that interact only through their mutual gravitational interactions.” What is observed as large scale structure is based on the method of measuring and the cosmological parameters used.

The cosmologist uses the Hubble constant and redshift measurements since most assume an expanding universe. Luminance and color, dark matter and dark energy are also factors involved in determining distances, sizes and other properties of the universe. See Rational Science Vol I, Chapter Eight – Expanding Universe; Vol. II Chapter Thirty Four – Gravitational Lensing and the CMB, Chapter Thirty Five – Dark Energy and Dark Matter and Vol. II, Chapter Seventeen – Distance To the Stars, Chapter Eighteen – Shapiro Effect, Chapter Nineteen – Distance ...The Rubber Ruler.

Thermodynamically, what happens at the micro level is governed by the same laws that govern what is happening on the macro level, and this is viewed within a phase space as probability distributions. You can see from the following definitions that they are moving more and more into the abstract.

Macro/microstates: “Treatments on statistical mechanics define a macrostate as follows. A particular set of values of energy, number of particles and volume of an isolated thermodynamic system is said to specify a particular macrostate of it. In this description, microstates appear as different possible ways the system can achieve a particular macrostate.” – WIKI

While most definitions of macro and micro refer to size, in thermodynamics they mean something entirely different. Sure there must be some matter to be measured, but it is also about energy that the matter possesses (read-matter in motion). A microstate is a single state out of a gazillion different possible states for any particular macrostate. Thermodynamic botherers calculate how molecules or particles vibrate, rotate, and translate. Translational motion is the path, or form, taken in its change of location. If I point my laser pointer at the chalk board, the light travels rectilinearly. We say the light has rectilinear motion. When calculating, the entropy botherers add this to delta H (phase change, or phase change energy).

A macrostate is the state of the system at a particular time based on its pressure, temperature, volume, and enthalpy. In other words, each atom and molecule is assumed to have momentum and a location in respect to the others. Since a mole of molecules is 6 x 10^23, and they are all moving around bumping into each other at fantastic speeds, it is easiest to just look at a single “snapshot” of this “movie.”

Therefore, a macrostate has many, many possible microstates. Gases have speeds from zero to 2K mph traveling a couple of hundred times their diameter before hitting its neighboring molecule and thereby gaining or loosing energy. Solid matter’s atoms vibrate around a fixed point, but in all cases, there really is no zero movement, it’s just silly to have motion in a snapshot. It makes it impossible to calculate values!

The greater the number of atoms or molecules in a system, the greater the number of microstates and the greater the number of relationships between the system’s entropy and its molecular motion. Running the numbers tells engineers something about all the myriad ways energy can be distributed in the system. For example, the larger the number of microstates, the greater the entropy at a given temperature and pressure.

Sky watchers counted all the atoms in our galaxy and discovered there are about 10^70. So, they assume there is around 10^80 in the whole Uni. That’s a lot of microstates! Just try plotting that phase space!

Phase Space: “In classical mechanics, the phase space is the space of all possible states of a physical system; by “state” we do not simply mean the positions q of all the objects in the system (which would occupy physical space or configuration space ), but also their velocities or momenta p (which would occupy momentum space). One needs both the position and momentum of system in order to determine the future behavior of that system.” – UCLA math department

Degrees of Freedom: “Six degrees of freedom (6DoF) refers to the freedom of movement of a rigid body in three dimensional space. Specifically, the body is free to change position as forward/backward (surge), up/down (heave), left/right (sway) translation in three perpendicular axes, combined with changes in orientation through rotation about three perpendicular axes, often termed pitch, yaw, and roll.”

Of course, we understand that there exists only three dimensional objects with length, width, and height that can move with six degrees of freedom, but mechanical statistics may use any number of dimensions and degrees of freedom in the abstract sense: Thermodynamics, gravitational, and electromagnetic degrees of freedom.

Degrees of Freedom in thermodynamics: *“Any of the independent thermodynamic variables, such as pressure, temperature, or composition, required to specify a system with a given number of phases and components.”*

Gravitational Degrees of Freedom: Trying to determine the degrees of freedom varies depending on who you are talking to and what you are trying to accomplish. General Relativity uses a metric (tensor) and the Einstein Field Equations to arrive at 10 independent components. Rather than me try to explain this to you, why don’t you read what York of Princeton has to say about it in his paper entitled, “**Gravitational degrees of freedom and the initial-value problem.” **From the abstract:

“It is shown that for every space like three-geometry there exists a symmetric tensor that is (1) defined locally using only the three-metric and its derivatives, (2) conformally invariant, (3) traceless, and (4) covariantly divergence free ("transverse"). As a result, the arbitrarily specifiable (unconstrained) initial-value data in the Einstein initial-value problem for gravity can be completely characterized by a pair of symmetric, transverse, traceless tensors."

Electromagnetic degrees of freedom: There are so many applications of this term (in electromagnetic waves, in optical systems, of gauge bosons, in 2-D scattering, in the presence of noise, MEMS electromagnetic vibration) that I decided to go with a Stanford University paper by Rafael Piestun and D. A. B. Miller, “Degrees of freedom of an electromagnetic wave” From the abstract:

”…although in principle there are an infinity of d.o.f., the effective number is finite. This is in agreement with the restricted classical theories.”

As mentioned in the previous chapter, cosmologists observe local laws and extrapolate global structure (large-scale structure) from that. Using Einstein’s field equations cosmologists applied local space-time laws of gravitation globally. Lemaitre used these equations in his Big Bang Creationism, as directed by his Pope, and most discussion revolves around early expansion of the universe after a singularity (Hawking’s dimpled pea). Current “understanding” revolves around how processes early on during the hot phase of expansion lead to light elements and the Cosmic Microwave background. Please refer to Rational Science Vol. I, Chapter Eight – Expanding Universe, Chapter Twenty One – Big Bang Theory, Vol. II, Chapter Thirty Four – Gravitational Lensing and the CMB; Vol. V, Chapter Six – Expanding Space Silliness, Chapter Seven – Infinitiverse.

The lack of an interconnecting mechanism in comsologist’s hypotheses, and the reification of space and time lead to such misdirected notions as Big Bang, singularities, warped space, spacetime and arrows of time.

There are two major hypotheses relating to the formation of stars and planets. Hopefully what we learned about them, (see Rational Science Vol. V Chapter Fourteen – Planetary Evolution, Chapter Fifteen – Stellar Metamorphosis, Chapter Sixteen – Transformation Hypothesis, Chapter Seventeen – Solar System Formation, Chapter Eighteen - Brown Dwarfs and Migrating Planets, Chapter Nineteen – Planetary Evolution and the Rational Scientific Method) can give us an understanding of the physical processes involved, and in light of the Rope Hypothesis, will give us a Theory of Threads for cosmic scale phenomena. Certainly we can understand that current cosmologists are barking up the wrong tree with creation hypotheses. Further, as we can easily understand, if there was no Big Bang Creation, then the uniform distribution of radiation seen most readily in the microwave region of the EM, called CMB, is not what we are being told it is. As we saw in RSM Vol. II, from the chapter on Gravitational Lensing and the CMB, Stephen Crothers and Professor of Radiology, Pierre-Marie Robitaille's analysis of the COBE and WMAP data showed how** **earth's oceans are likely the source of the microwave signal. The CMB may be the criss-crossing of ropes.

Another area where cosmologists miss the boat, is in failing to comprehend that, while there is a one-way mechanism in the second Law of Thermodynamics locally (the arrow of time), there can be no such direction of time globally, as matter in motion is eternal and time is irrelevant where eternity is concerned. In reality, since all matter is interconnected by the two strand rope formed from a single closed-looped thread, there is both a bottom up and top down mechanism, or feed forward/ feed backward mechanism built into all phenomena. Self organizing systems, and especially living systems, must surely play some role.

**In the next chapter, we’ll redefine thermodynamics in light of the Rope Hypothesis. In the next book, Rope Hypothesis and Thread Theory Vol, II, we’ll see if we can follow a thread**

**throughout the cosmos.**

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