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Industry Standards for Tile
Tile standards range from material specifications to tile testing procedures to methods to verify their dimensions. ISO, ASTM International, ANSI and military specifications have all been issued for different types of tiles. What are some of the leading tile standards?
Types of Tiles
While ceramic tile floors are the first thing that comes to mind when you say "tile", businesses and offices often have sound absorbing tile, non-slip tile floors, shock-absorbing tiles and decorative tile. Ceramic tiles are also used as roofing material.
All of these types of tile must meet a host of industry standards. Standards for tiles set by the ISO, ASTM and other groups are assigned based on the tile material and its intended application.
ISO Tile Standards
ISO 13006 gives the different classifications of ceramic tiles recognized by the ISO. ISO 13006 also gives the characteristics of each type of ceramic tile and appropriate markings for each. ISO 10545 gives the methods of determining the strength of ceramic tiles, resistance to thermal shock and modulus of rupture. ISO 13007 is the standard for grouts and adhesives used with ceramic tiles.
Cork tiles are used to absorb sound. ISO 3813 gives the material specifications for cork floor tiles. ISO 3810 is the test procedure for floors made from cork. ISO 9366 gives the approved method of determining the dimensions and straightness of cork floor tiles. ISO 2509 is the standard for measuring the sound absorption of pure cork tiles.
ISO 24342 is the standard for textile floor tiles. ISO 13747 gives the method of measuring the size and straightness of textile floor tiles. ISO 10595 is the standard for PVC floor tiles. ISO 24011 is the standard for linoleum tiles. ISO 23999 is the tile testing procedure for determining the dimensional stability of floor tiles after they have been exposed to heat.
ASTM Tile Standards
The ASTM does not issue industry standards for tile installation, only the materials used to make the tiles and test the products prior to installation.
ASTM tile standards are assigned based on the intended use of the tile and the material from which it is made. ASTM standards exist for clay tiles, concrete tiles, rubber tiles and woven material tiles as well as other types.
ASTM C126 gives the specifications for glazed structural tile. ASTM C34-10 outlines the performance specifications for load bearing wall tile. ASTM C56-10 gives the specifications for non-load bearing clay tile. ASTM C4-04 is the standard for clay drain tile. ASTM C212-10 is the standard for clay facing tile for both interior and exterior facing walls. ASTM C530-10 gives the specifications for clan screen tile. ASTM C1167-11 is the standard for clay roof tiles.
ASTM C67 is the standard tile test procedure for structural clay tile. ASTM C648-04 describes the method of testing the breaking strength of ceramic tile. ASTM C482-02 gives the method of testing the bond strength of ceramic tile to Portland cement paste. ASTM C1232-12 gives the standard terminology for ASTM masonry standards, including clay roofing tiles. ASTM C1492-03 is the standard for concrete roof tiles. ASTM C412-11 gives the specifications of concrete drain tile. Concrete drain tile is a mixture of cement, aggregate and water. ASTM’s standard allows any number of materials to be used in the cement, including fly ash and conventional cement.
ASTM C485-09 gives the method of measuring the warpage of ceramic tile. ASTM C627-10 outlines the test procedure for testing ceramic floors with Robinson floor testers to mimic real world conditions. ASTM C650-04 describes the method of testing how well ceramic tiles resist chemical substances such as hydrochloric acid.
Resilient floor coverings are not made from stone, clay or ceramic tiles. Resilient floor coverings include rubber floors, vinyl floors and linoleum. Resilient floor coverings may provide a softer walking surface, electrical insulation or lower cost. ASTM F141-12 gives the official terminology used in resilient flooring standards. ASTM F1344-12 is the standard for rubber floor tiles. ASTM F2195-07 gives the specifications for linoleum tile. ASTM F1700-04 gives the specifications for vinyl floor tile.
ANSI Tile Standards
ANSI has created industry standards for tile installation. ANSI A137.1 is ANSI’s voluntary standard for ceramic tile. ANSI A108 is the standard for installing ceramic tile with Portland cement. ANSI A118.1 is the standard for installing tile with mortar that does not contain a polymer.
There are several military standards or mil-spec for tile. MIL-DTL-24487 is the DoD standard for vibration dampening rubber tile. MIL-T-20215 is the standard for silicone carbide refractory tile. MIL-P-22581 is the military specification for type 3 vibration damping plastic tiles. However, for most military applications, the DoD and defense contractors now use industrial standards set by ASTM International or the ISO.