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Top Ten Interesting and Fun Facts About the Moon

Updated on August 18, 2015
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Amanda is a retired educator with many years of experience teaching children of all ages and abilities in a wide range of contexts.

The Moon

The Moon was once thought to shine by its own light. We now know, of course, that it reflects the light of the Sun. But even today, the sight of the Moon still inspires a sense of awe and wonder.
The Moon was once thought to shine by its own light. We now know, of course, that it reflects the light of the Sun. But even today, the sight of the Moon still inspires a sense of awe and wonder. | Source

The Moon in Myths and Stories

In ancient times, the Moon was thought to shine by its own light.

We know now that it only reflects the light of the Sun.

But before we come to look at the science of the Moon, let's just take a trip back in time to find out what our ancestors made of the mysteries of the Moon in their myths. legends and stories...

Moon Goddess

We've all heard the idea still told to children today that there is a 'Man in the Moon'...

Moon Fact 1

The Moon was probably created by a collision between the forming Earth and a piece of astral debris. This also accounts for its mixed composition of Earth-like rocks and alien rocks.

"The man in the moon came down too soon

and asked his way to Norwich.

He went by the south and burned his mouth

while supping cold pease porridge."

- Traditional.

...or even that the the Moon is made of cheese!

In ancient times, however, the Moon was most frequently thought of as a god or more often, a goddess.

The Sun and the Moon were often thought to be divine beings; one masculine, one feminine; one ruling the day, the other the night.


Lunar Goddess Image

This is an image of a lunar, or moon, goddess. It is based on ancient carvings from prehistoric times.
This is an image of a lunar, or moon, goddess. It is based on ancient carvings from prehistoric times. | Source

Moon Myths of the World

In Alaska, the myths of the Inuit people talk of the Moon as a wicked god named Malina, the brother of the Sun. In their mythology the Sun is seen as a goddess called Annigan.

Malina is cruel and chases his sister across the sky. But he spends all his time doing that and forgets to eat - so as the month wears on he gets thinner and thinner until he vanishes away altogether!

Watch the video below to learn a Korean myth about the creation of the Sun and the Moon. Do any elements in this story remind you of stories that you know from closer to home?

Korean Moon Myth

Moon Fact 2

Because of the way the Moon turns on its axis and orbits the Earth, we can only ever see one side of it! That is the side illuminated by the Sun. We do know what the 'dark side' of the Moon looks like, however, as it has been photographed from space.

In some Native American myths and stories, it is said that the Sun and the Moon are husband and wife. But the Sun is hungry and cruel and wants to eat their children, the stars. So, when he wakes in the morning, all the star-children run away. It is only at night, while he is sleeping, that the Moon can come out and play with her children.

But the Moon has not only inspired Native American stories.. Here is a beautiful piece of Native American music played on the traditional wooden flute.

Native American Moon Song

Nigerian Moon Mask

This is an ancient Nigerian mask which may represent the Moon goddess.
This is an ancient Nigerian mask which may represent the Moon goddess. | Source

The Sun and the Moon are thought of as man and wife in the Nigerian mythology from Africa.

The stories tell how they once lived on Earth among the people, but there came a great flood and they escaped into the sky, where they remain to this day.

In Kenya, also in Africa, the myths tell how the Sun and the Moon were both brothers, but they were always fighting and squabbling with each other.

One day, during one of their fights, the Moon fell into a swamp. Covered in mud, his light was dimmed.

Eventually God became so fed up with their constant battles that he separated them, putting one of them in the day and the other in the night.

Moon Fact 3

The Romans called their Moon Goddess, 'Luna' and we still use this term when we refer to things to do with the Moon.

Think of 'the lunar landings' or the 'lunar orbit' or the 'lunar calendar.'

Because of the Moon's association with magic and madness, we still sometimes talk of 'lunatics' to describe people whose behavior is irrational - although it is no longer a term acceptable to describe someone suffering from a genuine psychiatric illness.

Moon Myths of the Ancient Greeks

According to the mythology of the Ancient Greeks, the Moon Goddess was Artemis, the sister of Apollo, the Sun God.

To the Greeks, the Moon was intimately associated with darkness, dreams, mysteries and magic. They actually had more than one Moon Goddess.

The Goddess of the 'dark of the moon' was a slightly more terrifying figure, Hecate, Queen of the Underworld and all things spooky!

Moon Mysteries Investigated

Apollo Moon Landing

Galileo first uncovered the mysteries of the Moon in 1608. 360 years later, in 1969, the Apollo Moon Mission landed the first people on the Earth's nearest satellite: the Moon.
Galileo first uncovered the mysteries of the Moon in 1608. 360 years later, in 1969, the Apollo Moon Mission landed the first people on the Earth's nearest satellite: the Moon. | Source

Galileo, Telescopes and the Moon

The Moon remained a mystery for most of human history.

It was only in the sixteenth century, with the invention of Galileo's telescope, that the Moon could be properly observed for the first time.

Galileo spent many months observing the Moon and recording his observations. He was the first to realize that the Moon was a solid satellite of the Earth, with its own valleys and mountains.

His discovery paved the way to a complete revision of how the Earth and humanity fits into the scheme of the Universe as a whole. It was, in many ways, the beginning of secular science.

The Moon was no longer a goddess to be worshipped or a 'divine sphere' to be wondered at, but an astronomical object that could be studied. It would be a mere three hundred sixty years later, in 1969, that the Apollo spacecraft landed the first humans on the Moon.

What do you think Galileo would have made of that?

Portrait of Galileo Galilei

Galileo was the first person to turn the eye of a telescope on the Moon and to discover that it was not a divine being but a satellite of the Earth and could be studied by astronomers.
Galileo was the first person to turn the eye of a telescope on the Moon and to discover that it was not a divine being but a satellite of the Earth and could be studied by astronomers. | Source

Moon Fact 4

Earth has actually more than one Moon! It's true. But the other one is so small (just three miles across) and was discovered so recently, in 1999, that not many people know about it. It's called Cruithne - look it up!

The Science of the Moon

Now we've looked at the myths and legends that our ancestors created about the Moon and arrived at Galileo, the first lunar scientist, let's take a look at what we know about the Moon today.

Thanks to mathematicians, astronomers, chemists, geologists, cosmologists, astrophysicists and, of course, astronauts - science has discovered a great deal about the Moon.

So What is the Moon?

You've probably heard of 'satellites' that orbit the Earth. Most of them are human made and shot up into space with rockets. You might think of radio satellites that beam your TV pictures around the world, or space exploration satellites that carry powerful telescopes.

Moon Fact 5

Because the Moon's atmosphere is so thin, there is no wind or rain. That's why the flag that we put on the Moon when we landed there for the first time in 1969, had to have a horizontal pole inserted in the top or it would just have hung down!

Well, the Moon is the Earth's only natural satellite.

A 'satellite' is simply any physical body that travels around another one. Which is why our space stations and transmitters and so on are also called satellites - that's what they do!

How Was the Moon Formed?

Scientists have a lot of evidence that suggests the Moon probably first formed about the same time as the Earth.

Moon Fact 6

The ocean tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon on the Earth's surface. Not much else can move but the seas are fluid. They stay on Earth, however, because the Earth's own gravitational pull is stronger. Phew!

4.3 billion years ago, while the Earth was still in the process of forming from the swirling particles left over by an exploding star, it collided with another 'heavenly body' about the size of the planet Mars.

This collision caused a scattering of looser Earth material to spin off into space. It was caught in the Earth's gravitational field and swirled into terrestrial orbit, slowly condensing by its own gravity to become the Moon.

So now you know. Or maybe not. Science is, after all, a work-in-progress.

The fact is that scientists have a lot of evidence for this, but not quite enough be certain. Although, some of the problems with understanding just how it all happened are getting clearer, as the following video explains:

Scientists Get Closer to Understanding How the Moon was Formed

The Phases of the Moon

We often talk about the Moon getting bigger and smaller during the month. This phenomenon is called 'the phases of the Moon'. Of course, the Moon isn't really getting bigger and smaller at all. It just seems that way from Earth.

So, what are the phases of the Moon?

The Moon's Phases

The Moon has eight phases as seen from Earth.
The Moon has eight phases as seen from Earth. | Source

Phases of the Moon Explained

Now, you remember that the Moon doesn't shine with its own light? It reflects the light of the Sun.

That means that the portion of the lunar surface that we can see depends on the relative positions of the Earth and the Moon to the Sun.

So, as the Earth (orbiting the Sun) and the Moon (orbiting the Earth) get closer to alignment, less and less of the lit-up side of the Moon is visible.

Moon Fact 7

It takes the Moon 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.6 seconds, to orbit the Earth once.

Little by little during the month, more shadow is cast over the Moon until, when the Sun, Earth and Moon are completely lined up with the Moon between the Sun and the Earth, it blocks the sunlight altogether and the Moon seems to disappear!

Then, as we pass over the other side, the lit-up side gets bigger and bigger, until we are aligned again but this time with the Earth in-between the Sun and the Moon. Then we have the Full Moon.

Still not quite sure how this works? Or do you just prefer to see a picture? Watch this video animation which explains all the phases of the Moon very nicely:

Why Does the Moon Change Shape?

Lunar Orbit

The Moon orbits the earth because of the Earth's gravity. But it doesn't go round us in a perfect circle. It travels along an orbit which is more or less egg-shaped. We say that it follows an elliptical orbit.

Moon Fact 8

The Moon is approximately 250,000 miles away from the Earth. Average walking speed is 3 miles per hour. How long would it take you to walk to the Moon?

The Moon also spins on its own axis, just as the Earth does. The time it takes to make one full turn on its axis is the same as it takes to orbit the Earth once. What that means, is that from Earth, we can only ever see one side of the Moon!

The other side, which we cannot see from our home planet, is known as the 'dark side of the Moon'.

The Moon and the Tides

Have you ever spent any time by the sea? Have you ever wondered why it is that the ocean has tides and how the tides go in and out?

Moon Fact 9

The surface of the Moon is pitted with craters. These were formed by collisions with space rocks and asteroids over 4 billion years ago. They remain almost perfectly formed because the Moon has virtually no geological activity and no weather, either!

The answer lies in the effect of the Moon's gravity on the surface waters of the Earth.

Sounds amazing? Well, yes, it is. Let's have a look at this phenomenon and see if we can understand it.

How Does the Moon Effect the Tides?

Most coastal waters experience two daily tides known as high tide (when the water level is at its maximum) and low tide (when the water level is at its minimum).

Moon Fact 10

In 2009, scientists discovered that there is some frozen water on the Moon. However, there are no signs of life having evolved there.

But how does the Moon exert its influence on the movement of water? How does the Moon effect the tides?

Well, I'm going to let the guys from Test Tube (which is a handy little channel for bite-size explanations of complicated science, if you're interested) give you the information you need. Watch:

The Tides Explained

The Eagle Has Landed!

That brings us to near the end of our moonwalk, our look at the top ten most interesting and fun facts about the Moon.

Moon Poll

Did you learn something new here today?

See results

But before you go, take a moment to watch this iconic bit of film of the very first time humans actually set foot on that extraordinary satellite that has fascinated humankind since we first looked up to night sky...

And then, maybe you'd like to answer the Moon poll, too. It's great to know what you think!

Now, watch the video below:

The First Men on the Moon

Original, unique articles for kids, parents and teachers, written by expert author, Amanda Littlejohn.
Original, unique articles for kids, parents and teachers, written by expert author, Amanda Littlejohn.

About the Author...

Articles at stuff4kids are written exclusively by expert author, Amanda Littlejohn. Amanda is a retired educator with many years of experience teaching children of all ages and abilities in a wide range of professional and informal settings. She now specializes in writing and publishing valuable resources for use in educational contexts.

You are welcome to refer to these pages on your own site so long as you include a live link and the copyright attribution. Copying and pasting the article content itself, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. All articles on this subdomain (http://stuff4kids.hubpages.com) are original, unique content and all rights remain with the author.

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© 2014 Amanda Littlejohn

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    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 2 years ago from USA

      Wonderfully informative and engaging hub, Mindi. I wasn't aware of the existence of Cruithne. Voted up and more, plus pinning and sharing.

    • villyvacker profile image

      Billy Turnock 2 years ago from Manchester England

      A great article, a comprehensive study of the moon. I find these kind of articles fascinating and yours is just the kind I like.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Shelley!

      Thank you for you kind words. I'm happy that you found this article about the Moon to be interesting and that you learned something new here today!

      Very few people do know about Earth's second Moon, of course. It's quite specialist knowledge.

      Thanks for sharing it, too - I really do appreciate that.

      Bless you :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi villyvacker!

      Thanks for your comment - so glad you found it interesting.

      Bless you :)

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 2 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Well you didn't lie. Those were fun and interesting facts. :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Bill!

      Many thanks and I'm happy you enjoyed it.

      Bless you. :)

    • Relationshipc profile image

      Kari 2 years ago from Alberta, Canada

      I love the Korean myth. Putting the kids to work as the sun and moon - I wonder what I would have pictured when I looked at the moon as a kid with that story?

      I do remember staring at the face for hours as I tried to fall asleep. And, of course, I remember thinking the moon was cheese.

      I've never thought so much about the moon before! Now I understand why we have a full moon, half moon, etc. every month. The moon takes about a month to orbit Earth. Very cool...

    • DealForALiving profile image

      Sam Deal 2 years ago from Earth

      Really well research hubs and I especially enjoyed the videos you found with the Native American and Korean moon myths.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Relationshipc!

      Thanks for your contribution to this article about the Moon.

      It is fascinating, isn't it, to get a perspective on other cultures through their myths and legends? Especially with the Moon, because wherever we are in the world and at whatever point in history, we all see not only the same Moon, but the same side of the Moon, too!

      And yes, it takes about a month for the Moon to orbit the Earth. That is where the word 'month' comes from. It means, 'a moon's worth'.

      Bless you :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi DealForALiving!

      Glad you enjoyed the videos and finding out about Native and Korean myths of the Moon.

      Thanks for commenting. Bless you :)

    • carrie Lee Night profile image

      Kept private 2 years ago from Northeast United States

      Interesting facts ! Never heard we have two moons :). Good stuff. Thank you for sharing.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Carrie!

      Thanks for reading and commenting - glad you learned something new about the Moon - or moons, as you say!

      Bless you. :)

    • JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

      Jyoti Kothari 2 years ago from Jaipur

      Nice and informative. A surprising fact is that Jain (an ancient Religion from India) canons speak of two moons!!

      Rated up and interesting!

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Jyoti!

      Thanks for reading and your interesting comment. I have heard of Jainism, but must confess that I don't know a great deal about it - India has such a rich cultural heritage.

      What an extraordinary coincidence about the Moons!

      Thanks again for you contribution. Bless you :)

    • AliciaC profile image

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks for an interesting and very informative hub. I loved the myths!

    • MPG Narratives profile image

      Marie Giunta 2 years ago from Sydney, Australia

      Some very interesting facts here, a did know some of them but you have increased my knowledge, especially about tides. Oh, and now I know where the word 'lunatics' comes from. Voted up and useful.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi AliciaC!

      Thanks for reading this article about the Moon and for taking the time to comment! I'm glad you learned something new here, too. The Moon myths are quite fascinating, aren't they? And it is often a surprise to folks that not all 'lunar deities' were goddesses but many of them gods, too.

      Thanks again for your contribution. Bless you :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi MPGNarratives!

      Thanks for your comment. I'm glad that you learned something new in this look at some of the most interesting facts about the Moon.

      I find the science of how the tides are influenced by the Moon especially interesting so I'm glad you found that useful, too.

      Bless you :)

    • JuiceMet profile image

      Jessica 2 years ago from Cranston, Rhode Island

      What a great hub! I didn't know about the 2nd moon and I found all your video's about the mythology utterly fascinating. Just in time for this years final SUPERMOON! Thanks for the great hub! :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi JuiceMet!

      Yes, the Supermoon phenomenon has been creating quite a media stir as well as offering us all a great opportunity to look up in wonder at the Universe beyond our little planet!

      Our second Moon is, of course, far too small to see.

      Thanks so much for your comment. Bless you :)

    • Hezekiah profile image

      Hezekiah 2 years ago from Japan

      Thanks a lot for the amazing facts there something nice to share with the kids.

    • Laura335 profile image

      Laura Smith 2 years ago from Pittsburgh, PA

      This takes me back to science class. This was very simple but interesting and informative.

    • tom yam profile image

      Russell Pittock 2 years ago from Nakon Sawan Province, Thailand.

      Great hub with some interesting facts and figures. It seems so long ago that we landed on the moon. I can still remember being allowed to stay up late to watch the landing.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Hezekiah!

      Thanks for your comment. I'm glad you enjoyed learning about the Moon - and I hope your kids enjoy it, too.

      Bless you :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Laura335!

      I hope science class was a happy place! I do think the Moon is always an interesting topic to come back to, especially as we continue to discover so much more about it.

      Bless you :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Tom!

      Thanks for your comment. Yes, the Moon landings do seem lifetimes ago - and we've come so far and so fast in terms of space exploration since then - even though we tend to send robots these days.

      I was in my late teens in 1969!

      Bless you :)

    • Sparrowlet profile image

      Katharine L Sparrow 2 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      Wow! What a lot of info here! So many facts I didn't know, and I'm not uneducated! I loved learning that we have another teeny weeny moon! I didn't know that! You are a great writer and this hub is so jam-packed with info it took me a while to get through it... and I enjoyed every minute! Great job.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Sparrowlet!

      Great that you enjoyed this article about the Moon - and I'm glad you found a few interesting surprises here, too!

      Many thanks for your generous comments. Bless you :)

    • Nadine May profile image

      Nadine May 2 years ago from Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

      Again an fantastic article. Learned a lot and I will share it. It could be that 4.3 billion years ago, according to the Ancient Sumerian texts it was that Tiamat ( The Earth was the planet which the Sumerians called Tiamat ) was struck by a large planet (The planet "Marduk" ) and this collision created the Earth's moon and the Asteroid Belt.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Nadine,

      Thanks for reading this article about the Moon and for leaving such a fascinating comment. It's an interesting idea. Although personally, I would be very cautious - for all kinds of reasons that would go way beyond the remit of a hub comment - of interpreting ancient Sumerian mythology as being descriptive of pre-ancient astronomical events.

      The myths referred to make fascinating reading, but more perhaps for the clear parallels in them with later Biblical creation myths, two different versions of which are preserved in the books we now call Genesis. The Biblical authors borrowed liberally from the mythological heritage of Mesopotamia.

      Thanks again for your contribution. Bless you :)

    • James Peters profile image

      James Timothy Peters 2 years ago from Hammond, Indiana

      This is an excellent HUB to read to the little ones, especially with Halloween right around the corner. Great job!

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Well, thank you, James!

      I hadn't thought about Hallowe'en just yet! But yes, I can see the connexion. I hope that you and your kids find this hubs interesting and have fun with it.

      Bless you :)

    • Crystal Tatum profile image

      Crystal Tatum 2 years ago from Georgia

      You've got a great series going here. Very interesting and entertaining.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Thanks, Crystal.

      I'm glad you're enjoying it!

      Bless you :)

    • Greensleeves Hubs profile image

      Greensleeves Hubs 2 years ago from Essex, UK

      When one thinks about it Amanda, the Moon ought to be just about the most astonishing thing one could ever see with the naked eye - an entire world, complete with mountains and valleys and plains and craters - all can be seen with just a glance. But it's just too familiar for people to appreciate it for what it is.

      Your page covers all the main points of interest which may appeal to younger readers, and hopefully it will inspire a few to look a little closer at our nearest neighbour in space. And a few adult readers too! Alun

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Alun!

      Thank you so much for your lovely contribution to this article about the Moon - or moons, as we now know. I agree with you that these things are indeed wonders that we seem to take for granted because we have become so familiar with them. That's one of the things I love about science, that it teaches us to continually look afresh at what we thought we knew and experience the wonder and the majesty of nature all over again.

      Bless you :)

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