ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Tribal Revolts in Colonial India

Updated on February 7, 2018

British in India consolidated their power and to achieve more paramountcy they have began to expand their colonial rule through acquiring more territories. In this regard they have come across many oppositions. Tribal revolts were one out of them as British have tried to achieve supremacy over the native tribal lands. However, British have overcome all the hurdles and established their paramountcy ultimately. The tribals were the earliest fighters for the independence and their revolts were all armed movements.

Causes of the Tribal Revolts

  1. Expansion of British Colonial Rule: Several plains were occupied by the English and to raise substantial revenue, they have started encroaching the rich mineral zones where tribals were inhabiting. Taxes were imposed over the tribals and in addition to that agricultural practices of tribals like shifting cultivation was banned. In 1831 – 32, Kols in India revolted against the British as they have imposed the ban on their traditional shifting cultivation.
  2. Penetration of the exploiters: The outsiders including the English East India Company penetrated into the lands of the tribals and began exploiting them. Land alienation was taking place. In consequence, Santals in India have started a rebellion in 1855 against the exploiters. They called the outsiders as `DIKUS`.
  3. British interference in the Socio-Religious affairs of the Tribals: In 1846, British made a Social legislation to prevent the human sacrifice. Human Sacrifice Abolition Act was passed, Konds in India whose society was prevalent for human sacrifice have revolted against the British in protest of the foregoing act.
  4. Evangelization of Tribals : the Christian missionaries actively spreading the Christian religion at this point of time. The missionaries tried introducing the Christian religion into the tribal`s society. This lead to the conflict and tribals revolted to save their traditional culture.

To end the exploitation of the British, to end the activities of the Christian missionaries and finally to put an end to the exploitation of the outsiders and to expel them, tribals have began the revolts.

Santhal Rebellion

Santhals were the agricultural people belong to Manbhum, Barabhum, Hazaribagh, Midnapur areas in India. The Permanent Settlement Act in 1793 lead to a disaster in their lives, as their lands were given to zamindars and high rents were demanded subsequently. They left their lands and settled in Rajmahal hills in India. However, still the exploitation against them was not having come to an end.

In 1855, Santhals held an assembly with 6000 of their people. Sidhu and Kanhu were the leaders of Santhals announced their intention to take possession of the country and setup a government of their own. Their slogan was 'Ending Kaliyug and establishing Satyayug.'

Infrastructure was targeted by them. Postal and railway communication between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal was cut off. The British mobilized troops and military operations was began in consequence. Out of 60000 Santhals mobilized, 15000 were killed including Sidhu. Konhu was arrested. Finally martial law was imposed in the areas where Sonthals were prevalent.

Munda Rebellion

Mundas inhabit in the Ranchi region of India. They were frustrated with the activities of Christian missionaries and lead a movement against the same. Their rebellion was called as `Ulgulan`, it was lead by Birsa Munda from 1899 – 1900. On 25 December they have started their revolt. They have started a new religion with Birsa as their priest and `Sing Bongpa` as their God. Ultimately the movement was suppressed and Birsa was arrested.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)